Analysis

Dear CHEMpions

 

We were very happy and glad to receive feedback on the detailed analysis put by CHEM of CAT 2014 on the 16th of Nov. we continue our efforts to bring you up-to-date analysis.

 

The second Big MBA Entrance Test passed by on – 23rd Nov. 2014 – IIFT (Indian Institute of Foreign test). It is interesting that this test survived even when the then HRD minister was working on a policy to reduce the overall number of tests for MBA Entrance to five. In that process – JMET, FMS, IRMA and many other tests were discontinued and most of them aligned to either CAT, XAT, MAT or CMAT. And yet IIFT continued. So here is a first rush view

 

Do check your performance with a detailed question by question analysis that follows on this page.

 

IIFT over the years is a pretty standard test with ½ mark GA questions, 3/4th Marks English Usage questions and the rest 1 mark questions – totaling to a 100 mark paper. This yesr there were 118 questions across sections. An important issue here is distributing time amongst the sections for maximizing performance.

 

Section – 1 General Awareness : was worth 13 marks. Fairly simple section if you have been reading the Editorial, Business and National/International pages of Newspapers regularly. Key was speed here.

 

Section – 2 in two parts RC and EU worth 32 marks almost equally distributed. If you avoided the longest RC with five questions (based on Austria) and were searching for answers of questions rather than figuring out the entire passage this was also manageable. However if you enter the wrong passage – you might end up losing important time.

 

Section – 3 A 20 mark section consisting of Logical Reasoning and a case on Decision Making. Patience was the key. Even if you just cracked two cases in those 20 min.

 

Section 4 – again subdivided into sections totaling 35 marks. DI as always was cumbersome and full of calculations. But data was not complex. You can easily spot about 15 questions in the QA section that will figure themselves out easily if you were just thorough with your thrust and accelerate material.

 

So, a good distribution of time would have been

Section – 1 : 10 min.

Section – 2 : 40 min (25 + 15)

Section – 3 : 20 min

Section 4 : 50 min (20 + 25)

 

As you write this numbers one realizes that this one is a tight test as far as time availability is concerned. One needs to select well if one was to score more. For Eg. The RC to do were the first two. And one should quickly move when one cannot figure out a question on first reading.

 

So what would be a good score in the IIFT

7-8 marks in 1st Section (say 11 attempts and 3 wrongs)

12-13 marks in 2nd section (2 RCs + 10 more questions with around 4-5 wrong)

8-10 marks in section 3 (almost 95% accuracy)

14-15 marks in section 4 (18+ attempts)

 

So a 42+ would be a good score in the test.

 

As you read through this analysis you realize that creating and implementing a time strategy is critical to your performance in MBA entrance tests. So even if you were not doing so. Do it now onwards in every test and your practice test as you continue your journey forward.

 

Let me remind you again of the effort that your faculty team makes in making available such detailed analysis along with our backend team that makes it all possible.

 

We remain, your best friends in your journey to high profile careers. All the very best for your coming tests.

 

 


GK
Question 1
Question:

Match the Indian Gold Medal Winners at the 2014 Commonwealth Games held at

Glasgow with the sports type in which the medal was awarded:

Name of the Player

Sports Type

  1. Joshana Chinappa
  1. Weightlifting
  1. Vinesh Phogat
  1. Squash
  1. Vikas Gowda  
  1. Discuss Throw
  1. Satish Sivalingam
  1. Wrestling

 

  1. a-3,b-2,c-4, d-1
  1. a-2,b-3, c-l,d-4
  1. a-2, b-4, c-3. d-1
  1. a-4,b-2,c-l,d-3

 


Solution:

(C); Joshana Chinappa (Squash); Vinesh Phogat (Wrestling); Vikas Gowda (Discuss throw); Satish Sivalingam (Weightlifting) (http://www.india.com/top-n/commonwealth-games-2014-list-of-15-gold-medal-winners-for-india-110315/)


Question 2
Question:

According to the Economic Survey for 2013-14, India had the second fastest growing services sector over the 11-year period from 2001 to 2012. Which country had the fastest growing service sector, in the corresponding period?

  1. China
  1. Russia
  1. Thailand
  1. Philippines

 


Solution:

(A); India has the second fastest growing services sector with its CAGR at 9.0 per cent, just below China’s 10.9 per cent, during 2001 to 2012. (http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=106260)


Question 3
Question:

Which of the following countries did not qualify for the 2014 FIFA World Cup semi­final?

  1. Brazil
  1. Germany
  1. Belgium
  1. Argentina

 


Solution:

(C); Germany qualified for the final for the eighth time with a 7–1 win over Brazil – the biggest defeat in Brazilian history since 1920. Argentina reached their first final since 1990, and the fifth overall after overcoming Netherlands in a penalty shoot-out following a 0–0 draw at the end of extra time. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_FIFA_World_Cup#Semi-finals)


Question 4
Question:

Lifebuoy is a brand of soap marketed by which of the following companies?

  1. ITC
  1. Procter & Gamble
  1. Godrej
  1. Unilever

 


Solution:

(D); Lifebuoy is a brand of soap marketed by Unilever. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lifebuoy_%28soap%29)


Question 5
Question:

According to the Human Development report published by UNDP in July 2014, which among the following South Asian countries have the highest and the least rank in Human Development Index (2013)? In each option first name is indicated for highest rank and second name for the least rank.

  1. India, Afghanistan
  1. Maldives, Nepal
  1. Srilanka, Afghanistan
  1. India, Bangladesh

                   


Solution:

(C); Sri Lanka has ranked above all neighbours in South Asia in the UNDP Human Development Index report. Afghanistan ranked at the bottom of the region at 172nd place. (http://med.gov.lk/english/?p=8555#sthash.KDFO0JHj.dpuf)


Question 6
Question:

Which of the following Indian-origin academician became the Dean of the Harvard College with effect from July 2014?

  1. Nitin Nohria
  1. Rakesh Khurana
  1. G Anandalingam
  1. Ajit Rangnekar

 


Solution:

(B); Indian-American professor Rakesh Khurana was named the new dean of Harvard College, the undergraduate college at Harvard University. He took over in his new position on July 1, 2014. (http://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/indian-american-rakesh-khurana-named-dean-of-harvard-college-114012300161_1.html)


Question 7
Question:

The Ebola virus disease is named after the Ebola River. The river is located at:

  1. Federal Republic of Nigeria
  1. The Democratic Republic of the Congo
  1. The Republic of Senegal
  1. The Commonwealth of Virginia, US

 


Solution:

(B); The name Ebolavirus is derived from the Ebola River in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), the location of the 1976 outbreak. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebolavirus)


Question 8
Question:

In the Pro-Kabaddi league played in India in 2014, the Future Group is the owner of which team?

  1. Jengaluru Bulls
  1. Bengal Warriors
  1. Dabang Delhi
  1. Jaipur Pink Panthers

 


Solution:

(B); Bengal Warriors is a Kabaddi team based in Kolkata, West Bengal that plays in the Pro Kabaddi League. The team is currently led by Nilesh Shinde, and coached by Raj Narain Sharma. The team is owned by Future Group. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro_Kabaddi_League)


Question 9
Question:

Which of the following is headquartered in USA?

  1. Goldman Sachs Group
  1. Barclays
  1. HSBC Holdings
  1. Standard Chartered PLC

 


Solution:

(A); Barclays, HSBC Holdings, Standard Chartered PLC are all headquartered in UK. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goldman_Sachs)


Question 10
Question:

Match the following:

Financial Institution

Tagline

  1. ICICI Bank
  1. India's International Bank
  1. Bank of Baroda X
  1. Jiyo sar utha ke
  1. HDFC Std Life
  1. Zindagi ke sath bhi Zindagi ke baad bhi
  1. LIC
  1. Khayal Aap Ka

 

  1. a-3, b-2, c-4, d-1
  1. a-4,b-3, c-l,d-2
  1. a-4,b-l,c-2, d-3
  1. a-4,b-2,c-l,d-3

 


Solution:

(C); (http://www.bankersadda.com/2014/10/banks-and-their-tag-lines.html)


Question 11
Question:

In the Union Budget for 2014-15, the Government proposed to keep aside Rs. 500 crores for "Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana" for:

  1. augmenting power supply to rural areas
  1. encouraging rural youth to take up local entrepreneurship program
  1. providing impetus to watershed development in the country
  1. the welfare of the tribal

 


Solution:

(A); Deen dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana is for agumenting power supply to rural areas. (http://www.indiainfoline.com/article/news/budget-2014-15-deendayal-upadhyaya-gram-jyoti-yojana-5964414610_1.html)


Question 12
Question:

Who among the following legends has been the latest recipient of the prestigious Dadasaheb Phalke Award?

  1. Shyam Senegal
  1. Manna Dey
  1. Gulzar
  1. Adoor Gopalakrishnan

 


Solution:

(C); Gulzar is the recepient of 2013 Dadasaheb Phalke Award. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dadasaheb_Phalke_Award)


Question 13
Question:

Who is the Brand Ambassador of Telangana State?

  1. Sania Mirza
  1. Saina Nehawal
  1. V. V. S. Laxman
  1. P. V. Sindhu

 


Solution:

(A); Indian tennis star Sania Mirza is the brand ambassador of Telangana state. (http://www.ndtv.com/article/south/sania-mirza-appointed-brand-ambassador-of-telangana-562893)


Question 14
Question:

Which country has become the latest member of the World Trade Organisation?

  1. Yemen
  1. Republic of Moldova
  1. Vietnam
  1. None of the above

 


Solution:

(A); Yemen became the 160th member of WTO. (http://nationalyemen.com/2014/05/27/yemen-to-become-160th-wto-member/)


Question 15
Question:

Shri Pi anab Mukherjee is the ______________ President of the Republic of India.

  1. 11th
  1. 12th
  1. 13th
  1. 14th

 


Solution:

(C); Pranab Kumar Mukherjee is the 13th and current President of India, in office since July 2012. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pranab_Mukherjee)


Question 16
Question:

Which among the following options is the oldest surviving brand of Tata Group?

  1. Tata Steel
  1. Tata Motors
  1. Tata Tetley
  1. Taj Hotels

 


Solution:

(D); TATA hotels founded in 1902 is the oldest surviving brand of TATA group. (http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tata-group-history-from-jamshedji-to-ratan-tata/slideshow/8602888.cms)


Question 17
Question:

Who among the following is the first woman to become MD / Chairman of a Bank in India?

  1. Ms. Ranjana Kumar
  1. Ms. Chanda Kochhar
  1. Arundhati Bhattacharya
  1. Ms. Shubhalakshmi Panse

 


Solution:

(A); Ranjana Kumar, was (from 2005) Vigilance Commissioner in Central Vigilance Commission, after her retirement as Chairperson of National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is a prominent Indian banker. When the Government of India appointed her as the Chairperson and managing Director of the Indian Bank, she became the first woman to become head of a public sector bank in India. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranjana_Kumar#The_career)


Question 18
Question:

Who amongst the following has not won the Man Booker Prize?

  1. Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni
  1. Arundhati Roy
  1. Kiran Desai
  1. Arvind Adiga

 


Solution:

(A); Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni is an Indian-American author, poet, and the Betty and Gene McDavid Professor of Writing at the University of Houston Creative Writing Program. (http://ibnlive.in.com/news/indian-authors-who-have-won-the-man-booker-in-the-past/274992-40-103.html)


Question 19
Question:

Match the Country with the Leader:

Country

Leader

  1. Japan
  1. Kim Jong-un
  1. China
  1. Benigno Aquino
  1. North Korea
  1. Shinzo Abe
  1. Philippines
  1. Xi Jinping

 

  1. a-i, b-ii, c-iii, d-iv
  1. a-iii, b-i, c-ii, d-iv
  1. a-iv, b-iii, c-i, d-ii
  1. a-iii, b-iv, c-i, d-ii

 


Solution:

(D); (http://goexams.blogspot.in/2009/08/list-of-world-presidents-prime.html)


Question 20
Question:

Which of the following is not headquartered in China?

  1. Weibo
  1. WeChat
  1. Alibaba
  1. Jabong

 


Solution:

(D); Jabong is headquartered in Gurgaon, India. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jabong.com)


Question 21
Question:

Who is the first CEO of AirAsia India?

  1. Mukund Rajan
  1. Srinivas Kini
  1. Y P Teik
  1. Mittu Chandilya

 


Solution:

(D); AirAsia’s CEO is Mittu Chandilya. (http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-06-13/news/50564688_1_ceo-mittu-chandilya-airasia-india-airasia-berhad)


Question 22
Question:

Who among the following has been appointed as the Chief Justice of India in September 2014?

  1. Justice Markandey Katju
  1. Justice R M Lodha
  1. Justice H L Dattu
  1. None of the Above

 


Solution:

(C); The President appointed Justice H L Dattu as CJI with effect from September 28, 2014. (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Justice-HL-Dattu-appointed-next-Chief-Justice-of-India/articleshow/41843728.cms)


Question 23
Question:

The winner of the Wimbledon Men's singles Final 2014 has been:

  1. Roger Federer
  1. Rafael Nadal
  1. Andy Murray
  1. Novak Djokovic

 


Solution:

(D); Novak Djokovic won the 2014 Wimbledon Men’s singles by defeating Roger Federer. (http://www.wimbledon.com/en_GB/scores/results/day21.html)


Question 24
Question:

According to the Primary Census Abstract 201 1, which of the following states in India has the highest population density?

  1. Gujarat
  1. Bihar
  1. Kerala
  1. Goa

 


Solution:

(B); Bihar has the highest density of poplulation according to primary census abstract 2011. (http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/newdelhi/population-density-bihar-west-bengal-among-world-s-most-crowded/article1-1055372.aspx)


Question 25
Question:

The Prime Minister of India has laid the foundation of which of the following port-based Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in August 2014?

  1. JNPT
  1. Chennai port
  1. Cochin Port
  1. Mundra Port

 


Solution:

(A); The Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi laid the foundation of a Port- Based Multi-product Special Economic Zone (SEZ) at the prestigious Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) at Sheva, Navi Mumbai on Saturday, August 16, 2014.
(http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=108431)


Question 26
Question:

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana has been launched in which year?

  1. 2011
  1. 2012
  1. 2013
  1. 2014

 


Solution:

(D); Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana s a scheme for comprehensive financial inclusion launched by the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi on 28 August 2014. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pradhan_Mantri_Jan_Dhan_Yojana)


VA
Question 1

CASE

No club in the English Premier League generated less money than Wigan Athletic. No club in the Premier League had so little history, or so few fans. Ever since 2005, when they won promotion to the top flight for the first time in their existence, Wigan started the season listening to prophecies of doom. 2013 was the year that football gravity finally caught up with them, and they returned to their 'rightful" place among the also-rans. Even as the naysayers and doubters were ignoring seven years of wrong forecasts and congratulating themselves for seeing Wigan's fate, this little David took out one last Goliath. Manchester City, in the FA Cup final.

 

In their book Why England Lose, the football journalist Simon Kuper and the economist Stefan Szymanski found that money matters a great deal for the success of football clubs. According to their calculations. 92 per cent of the differences in English football clubs' league position can be explained by a club's relative wage bill. It might not be the case that the team with the highest wage bill finishes top each and every season, but over the long term, the correlation is uncanny. At the other end of the table, it seems inevitable that, eventually, in football poverty will drag you down.

 

P-'or Wigan, this was unfortunate. The annual reports into football's finances prepared by the accountants Deloitte must have made miserable reading for anyone who followed the club: their turnover, wages and attendance were all fractions of the Premier League's giants. And yet Wigan managed to avoid relegation for seven years. It was almost pathological. They defied the laws of football economics. They disobeyed the laws of football gravity.

 

Part of the reason Wigan managed to survive so long in the rarefied air of the Premier League is Dave Whelan, the local magnate who owns the club. Wigan's average attendance was just 17,000 – they rarely sold out their home ground, the DW Stadium, its initials a (self-awarded) tribute to the club's benefactor – on a par with the likes of Vitesse Arnhem or the average Gennan second-division side, but half the Premier League's average. That's a considerable shortfall in revenue. It's the same when we look at television and commercial earnings: in 2010-11, they earned £50.5 million from all of these streams – a tidy sum, to be sure, but half what the average Premier League team took. Only because of Whelan's enduring generosity did the club avoid sinking into the red. In 2011-12, he wrote off a £48 million loan to the club to balance the books. Financially. Wigan could not compete. And yet on the pitch they did.

 

In truth, Wigan did not dramatically outperform their wage bill, the gauge – for Kuper and Szymanski – of a manager's true impact. From 2006 to 2011, they finished eighteenth, fifteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth and sixteenth in the salary league, not far off their finishes in the actual division. Yet Wigan's continued survival was still, as the respected financial blog The Swiss Ramble had it, ka minor modern miracle'. To explain why. we have to consider the odds that – given their spending on wages – Wigan would have been relegated well before the final axe fell in 2013. To do that properly, we need to calculate the odds of relegation as a function of a club's payroll.

 

The notional odds of relegation from the Premier League in any given season, for any team, are 15 per cent: three sides out of twenty endure the pain of demotion every year. But of course those three clubs are not simply drawn out of a hat: money does matter. More specifically, when we examined twenty years of club finances with the help of data from Deloitte, we found that a club's odds of relegation are 7.2 per cent if its wage spends is greater than average. In other words, you can halve the chances of being relegated just by spending a little more on your salaries than the average side. But for clubs that spend less, the odds of relegation, shoot up from 15 to 21 per cent. For a team that spends as little as Wigan or less, these odds can even be as high as 44 per cent in any given season.

 

 

Spending less isn't a death sentence, but you are flirting with the chair. And spending less than the average year after year means the odds of rejegation accumulate. For Wigan, the odds that they would be relegated at some point over the five Premier League seasons to 2012 were 95 per cent. It was, both mathematically and financially, almost a certainty. With wage bills four, two, and one and a half times Wigan's £40 million. Manchester United, Aston Villa and Fulham faced odds of demotion of 0, 3 1 and 69 per cent, respectively.

 

All this suggests that Wigan's continued survival was more than just good luck, and it was not simply attributable to their individual wage spending in any given year: the numbers were squarely against them. So Wigan's story is not just about money, but also how that money is put to use. By any standard measure Wigan had been a mediocre team for a long time. They conceded more goals than they scored in every season they were in the Premier League. They tended to have more possession than most of their peers at the wrong end of the table, but much of that came from the sterile domination of their own half. Roberto Martinez's team, though, had been doing more than just passing the ball around at the back and getting lucky.

 

With the help of Ramzi Ben Said, a student at Cornell University, and the performance chalkboards published online by the British newspaper the Guardian in conjunction with Opta Sports, we tried to establish how Wigan went about scoring their goals in the 2010-11 season. Ramzi collected and coded a year's worth of data of attacking production (how each Premier League club scored their goals that season).

 

The data showed that the vast majority – 66 per cent – of the 1.4 goals a team scored in the average match that year came from open play. By far the smallest proportion of goals came from direct free kicks: just 2.8 per cent per team, per match. The average team produced one goal a game from open play, but needed to take thirty-five direct free kicks before finding the net that way.

 

But Martinez's Wigan was not your typical club. In 2010-11, they created goals in extremely unusual ways. They relied much less on traditional open-play goals than most, and did not bother with anything that resembled a patient build-up. In half their games they failed to score from open play at all. When they did, they tended to come from what are known ariiong analysts as 'fast breaks" – lightning-quick counter-attacks. And the rest of their goals came from free kicks. Their output in both these categories was exceptional. They scored twice as many goals on the break as the average side, and they scored almost four times as many goals from free kicks.

 

Rather than choosing one or the other, Martinez as a manager seemed to have forsaken both high frequency – not scoring from the most common source of goals – as well as good odds – trying to score from low probability shots (free kicks) – as a way to win matches. Martinez was not trying to fight his opponents in a conventional way. Instead, he was beating them any way he could. Albert Larcada, an analyst at ESPN's Stats &. Information Group, filled in the picture further. Using Opta's master file of play-by-play data, Larcada discovered Wigan were unusual in a number of other ways.

 

Not only did they score from fast breaks and free kicks, but when Larcada calculated the average distances from which Premier League clubs attempted shots that season, Wigan were the overall league leaders. Their average shooting distance was some twenty-six yards. This looked deliberate: their goals came from a longer distance than any of their peers – an average of 18.5 yards, way ahead of second-placed Tottenham, while their players Charles N'Zogbia and Hugo Rodallega both finished in the top five scorers from distance in the Premier League in 2010-11.

 

Martinez was thinking outside the box in the most literal fashion. Indeed, his team had the lowest number of goals scored from inside the penalty area of any side in the league – just twenty-eight, compared to Manchester United's sixty-nine. This sounds very defensive – hitting teams on the break, relying on set pieces and long-range shots -but Wigan's formations told a more nuanced story. Martinez's strategy relied on highly accurate long-range shooting, firing from distance – allowing his team to recover their defensive shape more easily – and persistence. He did not place any emphasis on corners – Wigan scored just one goal from a corner in the entire 2010-11 season – because it meant allowing his troops out of hiding and into open sight, leaving them vulnerable. Martinez was playing guerrilla football. He had his team lie in wait for their opponents and then punish them on the counter-attack. He employed sharpshooters, to Let fly from distance, and snipers, to hit free kicks. His team were adaptable, unpredictable.

Question:

Identify the correct statement:

  1. In terms of salary payments to the staff, Wigan was ranked fifteenth during the 2009-10 season.
  1. According to the article, the wage bill of Manchester United is two times the corresponding figure for Aston Villa.
  1. According to the article, the research of Kuper and Szymanski revealed that if a football club is successful in including a number of highly paid footballers in its team, the club is more likely to win all major European tournaments.
  1. For analyzing the performance of the teams in English Premier League the above article has used the performance chalkboards published by The Guardian in its daily newspaper in conjunction with ESPN Sports.

 


Solution:

In paragraph 7 it is given that Manchester United & Aston Villa has wage bills that were four times and two times that of Wigan’s wage bill respectively.
Thus Manchester United has double the wage bill to that of Aston Villa.


Question 2

CASE

No club in the English Premier League generated less money than Wigan Athletic. No club in the Premier League had so little history, or so few fans. Ever since 2005, when they won promotion to the top flight for the first time in their existence, Wigan started the season listening to prophecies of doom. 2013 was the year that football gravity finally caught up with them, and they returned to their 'rightful" place among the also-rans. Even as the naysayers and doubters were ignoring seven years of wrong forecasts and congratulating themselves for seeing Wigan's fate, this little David took out one last Goliath. Manchester City, in the FA Cup final.

 

In their book Why England Lose, the football journalist Simon Kuper and the economist Stefan Szymanski found that money matters a great deal for the success of football clubs. According to their calculations. 92 per cent of the differences in English football clubs' league position can be explained by a club's relative wage bill. It might not be the case that the team with the highest wage bill finishes top each and every season, but over the long term, the correlation is uncanny. At the other end of the table, it seems inevitable that, eventually, in football poverty will drag you down.

 

P-'or Wigan, this was unfortunate. The annual reports into football's finances prepared by the accountants Deloitte must have made miserable reading for anyone who followed the club: their turnover, wages and attendance were all fractions of the Premier League's giants. And yet Wigan managed to avoid relegation for seven years. It was almost pathological. They defied the laws of football economics. They disobeyed the laws of football gravity.

 

Part of the reason Wigan managed to survive so long in the rarefied air of the Premier League is Dave Whelan, the local magnate who owns the club. Wigan's average attendance was just 17,000 – they rarely sold out their home ground, the DW Stadium, its initials a (self-awarded) tribute to the club's benefactor – on a par with the likes of Vitesse Arnhem or the average Gennan second-division side, but half the Premier League's average. That's a considerable shortfall in revenue. It's the same when we look at television and commercial earnings: in 2010-11, they earned £50.5 million from all of these streams – a tidy sum, to be sure, but half what the average Premier League team took. Only because of Whelan's enduring generosity did the club avoid sinking into the red. In 2011-12, he wrote off a £48 million loan to the club to balance the books. Financially. Wigan could not compete. And yet on the pitch they did.

 

In truth, Wigan did not dramatically outperform their wage bill, the gauge – for Kuper and Szymanski – of a manager's true impact. From 2006 to 2011, they finished eighteenth, fifteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth and sixteenth in the salary league, not far off their finishes in the actual division. Yet Wigan's continued survival was still, as the respected financial blog The Swiss Ramble had it, ka minor modern miracle'. To explain why. we have to consider the odds that – given their spending on wages – Wigan would have been relegated well before the final axe fell in 2013. To do that properly, we need to calculate the odds of relegation as a function of a club's payroll.

 

The notional odds of relegation from the Premier League in any given season, for any team, are 15 per cent: three sides out of twenty endure the pain of demotion every year. But of course those three clubs are not simply drawn out of a hat: money does matter. More specifically, when we examined twenty years of club finances with the help of data from Deloitte, we found that a club's odds of relegation are 7.2 per cent if its wage spends is greater than average. In other words, you can halve the chances of being relegated just by spending a little more on your salaries than the average side. But for clubs that spend less, the odds of relegation, shoot up from 15 to 21 per cent. For a team that spends as little as Wigan or less, these odds can even be as high as 44 per cent in any given season.

 

 

Spending less isn't a death sentence, but you are flirting with the chair. And spending less than the average year after year means the odds of rejegation accumulate. For Wigan, the odds that they would be relegated at some point over the five Premier League seasons to 2012 were 95 per cent. It was, both mathematically and financially, almost a certainty. With wage bills four, two, and one and a half times Wigan's £40 million. Manchester United, Aston Villa and Fulham faced odds of demotion of 0, 3 1 and 69 per cent, respectively.

 

All this suggests that Wigan's continued survival was more than just good luck, and it was not simply attributable to their individual wage spending in any given year: the numbers were squarely against them. So Wigan's story is not just about money, but also how that money is put to use. By any standard measure Wigan had been a mediocre team for a long time. They conceded more goals than they scored in every season they were in the Premier League. They tended to have more possession than most of their peers at the wrong end of the table, but much of that came from the sterile domination of their own half. Roberto Martinez's team, though, had been doing more than just passing the ball around at the back and getting lucky.

 

With the help of Ramzi Ben Said, a student at Cornell University, and the performance chalkboards published online by the British newspaper the Guardian in conjunction with Opta Sports, we tried to establish how Wigan went about scoring their goals in the 2010-11 season. Ramzi collected and coded a year's worth of data of attacking production (how each Premier League club scored their goals that season).

 

The data showed that the vast majority – 66 per cent – of the 1.4 goals a team scored in the average match that year came from open play. By far the smallest proportion of goals came from direct free kicks: just 2.8 per cent per team, per match. The average team produced one goal a game from open play, but needed to take thirty-five direct free kicks before finding the net that way.

 

But Martinez's Wigan was not your typical club. In 2010-11, they created goals in extremely unusual ways. They relied much less on traditional open-play goals than most, and did not bother with anything that resembled a patient build-up. In half their games they failed to score from open play at all. When they did, they tended to come from what are known ariiong analysts as 'fast breaks" – lightning-quick counter-attacks. And the rest of their goals came from free kicks. Their output in both these categories was exceptional. They scored twice as many goals on the break as the average side, and they scored almost four times as many goals from free kicks.

 

Rather than choosing one or the other, Martinez as a manager seemed to have forsaken both high frequency – not scoring from the most common source of goals – as well as good odds – trying to score from low probability shots (free kicks) – as a way to win matches. Martinez was not trying to fight his opponents in a conventional way. Instead, he was beating them any way he could. Albert Larcada, an analyst at ESPN's Stats &. Information Group, filled in the picture further. Using Opta's master file of play-by-play data, Larcada discovered Wigan were unusual in a number of other ways.

 

Not only did they score from fast breaks and free kicks, but when Larcada calculated the average distances from which Premier League clubs attempted shots that season, Wigan were the overall league leaders. Their average shooting distance was some twenty-six yards. This looked deliberate: their goals came from a longer distance than any of their peers – an average of 18.5 yards, way ahead of second-placed Tottenham, while their players Charles N'Zogbia and Hugo Rodallega both finished in the top five scorers from distance in the Premier League in 2010-11.

 

Martinez was thinking outside the box in the most literal fashion. Indeed, his team had the lowest number of goals scored from inside the penalty area of any side in the league – just twenty-eight, compared to Manchester United's sixty-nine. This sounds very defensive – hitting teams on the break, relying on set pieces and long-range shots -but Wigan's formations told a more nuanced story. Martinez's strategy relied on highly accurate long-range shooting, firing from distance – allowing his team to recover their defensive shape more easily – and persistence. He did not place any emphasis on corners – Wigan scored just one goal from a corner in the entire 2010-11 season – because it meant allowing his troops out of hiding and into open sight, leaving them vulnerable. Martinez was playing guerrilla football. He had his team lie in wait for their opponents and then punish them on the counter-attack. He employed sharpshooters, to Let fly from distance, and snipers, to hit free kicks. His team were adaptable, unpredictable.

Question:

As per the research conducted by the ESPN's Stats & Information Group, the average distances from which Wigan Athletic attempted shots during 2010-11 was:

  1. 22 yards
  1. 20 yards
  1. 26 yards
  1. 18.5 yards

 


Solution:

(C) Directly given the second paragraph of the passage.


Question 3

CASE

No club in the English Premier League generated less money than Wigan Athletic. No club in the Premier League had so little history, or so few fans. Ever since 2005, when they won promotion to the top flight for the first time in their existence, Wigan started the season listening to prophecies of doom. 2013 was the year that football gravity finally caught up with them, and they returned to their 'rightful" place among the also-rans. Even as the naysayers and doubters were ignoring seven years of wrong forecasts and congratulating themselves for seeing Wigan's fate, this little David took out one last Goliath. Manchester City, in the FA Cup final.

 

In their book Why England Lose, the football journalist Simon Kuper and the economist Stefan Szymanski found that money matters a great deal for the success of football clubs. According to their calculations. 92 per cent of the differences in English football clubs' league position can be explained by a club's relative wage bill. It might not be the case that the team with the highest wage bill finishes top each and every season, but over the long term, the correlation is uncanny. At the other end of the table, it seems inevitable that, eventually, in football poverty will drag you down.

 

P-'or Wigan, this was unfortunate. The annual reports into football's finances prepared by the accountants Deloitte must have made miserable reading for anyone who followed the club: their turnover, wages and attendance were all fractions of the Premier League's giants. And yet Wigan managed to avoid relegation for seven years. It was almost pathological. They defied the laws of football economics. They disobeyed the laws of football gravity.

 

Part of the reason Wigan managed to survive so long in the rarefied air of the Premier League is Dave Whelan, the local magnate who owns the club. Wigan's average attendance was just 17,000 – they rarely sold out their home ground, the DW Stadium, its initials a (self-awarded) tribute to the club's benefactor – on a par with the likes of Vitesse Arnhem or the average Gennan second-division side, but half the Premier League's average. That's a considerable shortfall in revenue. It's the same when we look at television and commercial earnings: in 2010-11, they earned £50.5 million from all of these streams – a tidy sum, to be sure, but half what the average Premier League team took. Only because of Whelan's enduring generosity did the club avoid sinking into the red. In 2011-12, he wrote off a £48 million loan to the club to balance the books. Financially. Wigan could not compete. And yet on the pitch they did.

 

In truth, Wigan did not dramatically outperform their wage bill, the gauge – for Kuper and Szymanski – of a manager's true impact. From 2006 to 2011, they finished eighteenth, fifteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth and sixteenth in the salary league, not far off their finishes in the actual division. Yet Wigan's continued survival was still, as the respected financial blog The Swiss Ramble had it, ka minor modern miracle'. To explain why. we have to consider the odds that – given their spending on wages – Wigan would have been relegated well before the final axe fell in 2013. To do that properly, we need to calculate the odds of relegation as a function of a club's payroll.

 

The notional odds of relegation from the Premier League in any given season, for any team, are 15 per cent: three sides out of twenty endure the pain of demotion every year. But of course those three clubs are not simply drawn out of a hat: money does matter. More specifically, when we examined twenty years of club finances with the help of data from Deloitte, we found that a club's odds of relegation are 7.2 per cent if its wage spends is greater than average. In other words, you can halve the chances of being relegated just by spending a little more on your salaries than the average side. But for clubs that spend less, the odds of relegation, shoot up from 15 to 21 per cent. For a team that spends as little as Wigan or less, these odds can even be as high as 44 per cent in any given season.

 

 

Spending less isn't a death sentence, but you are flirting with the chair. And spending less than the average year after year means the odds of rejegation accumulate. For Wigan, the odds that they would be relegated at some point over the five Premier League seasons to 2012 were 95 per cent. It was, both mathematically and financially, almost a certainty. With wage bills four, two, and one and a half times Wigan's £40 million. Manchester United, Aston Villa and Fulham faced odds of demotion of 0, 3 1 and 69 per cent, respectively.

 

All this suggests that Wigan's continued survival was more than just good luck, and it was not simply attributable to their individual wage spending in any given year: the numbers were squarely against them. So Wigan's story is not just about money, but also how that money is put to use. By any standard measure Wigan had been a mediocre team for a long time. They conceded more goals than they scored in every season they were in the Premier League. They tended to have more possession than most of their peers at the wrong end of the table, but much of that came from the sterile domination of their own half. Roberto Martinez's team, though, had been doing more than just passing the ball around at the back and getting lucky.

 

With the help of Ramzi Ben Said, a student at Cornell University, and the performance chalkboards published online by the British newspaper the Guardian in conjunction with Opta Sports, we tried to establish how Wigan went about scoring their goals in the 2010-11 season. Ramzi collected and coded a year's worth of data of attacking production (how each Premier League club scored their goals that season).

 

The data showed that the vast majority – 66 per cent – of the 1.4 goals a team scored in the average match that year came from open play. By far the smallest proportion of goals came from direct free kicks: just 2.8 per cent per team, per match. The average team produced one goal a game from open play, but needed to take thirty-five direct free kicks before finding the net that way.

 

But Martinez's Wigan was not your typical club. In 2010-11, they created goals in extremely unusual ways. They relied much less on traditional open-play goals than most, and did not bother with anything that resembled a patient build-up. In half their games they failed to score from open play at all. When they did, they tended to come from what are known ariiong analysts as 'fast breaks" – lightning-quick counter-attacks. And the rest of their goals came from free kicks. Their output in both these categories was exceptional. They scored twice as many goals on the break as the average side, and they scored almost four times as many goals from free kicks.

 

Rather than choosing one or the other, Martinez as a manager seemed to have forsaken both high frequency – not scoring from the most common source of goals – as well as good odds – trying to score from low probability shots (free kicks) – as a way to win matches. Martinez was not trying to fight his opponents in a conventional way. Instead, he was beating them any way he could. Albert Larcada, an analyst at ESPN's Stats &. Information Group, filled in the picture further. Using Opta's master file of play-by-play data, Larcada discovered Wigan were unusual in a number of other ways.

 

Not only did they score from fast breaks and free kicks, but when Larcada calculated the average distances from which Premier League clubs attempted shots that season, Wigan were the overall league leaders. Their average shooting distance was some twenty-six yards. This looked deliberate: their goals came from a longer distance than any of their peers – an average of 18.5 yards, way ahead of second-placed Tottenham, while their players Charles N'Zogbia and Hugo Rodallega both finished in the top five scorers from distance in the Premier League in 2010-11.

 

Martinez was thinking outside the box in the most literal fashion. Indeed, his team had the lowest number of goals scored from inside the penalty area of any side in the league – just twenty-eight, compared to Manchester United's sixty-nine. This sounds very defensive – hitting teams on the break, relying on set pieces and long-range shots -but Wigan's formations told a more nuanced story. Martinez's strategy relied on highly accurate long-range shooting, firing from distance – allowing his team to recover their defensive shape more easily – and persistence. He did not place any emphasis on corners – Wigan scored just one goal from a corner in the entire 2010-11 season – because it meant allowing his troops out of hiding and into open sight, leaving them vulnerable. Martinez was playing guerrilla football. He had his team lie in wait for their opponents and then punish them on the counter-attack. He employed sharpshooters, to Let fly from distance, and snipers, to hit free kicks. His team were adaptable, unpredictable.

Question:

Match the Following:

Name

Occupation

  1. Hugo Rodallega
  1. Student at Cornell University
  1. Ramzi Ben Said
  1. Manager of Wigan Athletic
  1. Roberto Martinez
  1. Analyst at ESPN
  1. Albert Larcada
  1. Player of Wigan Athletic

               

  1. i-c, ii-b, iii-d, iv-a
  1. i-d, ii-c, iii-a, iv-b
  1. i-b, ii-a, iii-c, iv-d
  1. i-d, ii-a, iii-b, iv-c

 


Solution:

(D)
(i) – (d) Given in the second paragraph of th epassage
(ii) – (a) Given in the ninth paragraph of the passage
(iii) – (b) Given in the third paragraph of th epassage
(iv) –  (c) Given in the third paragraph of th epassage


Question 4

CASE

No club in the English Premier League generated less money than Wigan Athletic. No club in the Premier League had so little history, or so few fans. Ever since 2005, when they won promotion to the top flight for the first time in their existence, Wigan started the season listening to prophecies of doom. 2013 was the year that football gravity finally caught up with them, and they returned to their 'rightful" place among the also-rans. Even as the naysayers and doubters were ignoring seven years of wrong forecasts and congratulating themselves for seeing Wigan's fate, this little David took out one last Goliath. Manchester City, in the FA Cup final.

 

In their book Why England Lose, the football journalist Simon Kuper and the economist Stefan Szymanski found that money matters a great deal for the success of football clubs. According to their calculations. 92 per cent of the differences in English football clubs' league position can be explained by a club's relative wage bill. It might not be the case that the team with the highest wage bill finishes top each and every season, but over the long term, the correlation is uncanny. At the other end of the table, it seems inevitable that, eventually, in football poverty will drag you down.

 

P-'or Wigan, this was unfortunate. The annual reports into football's finances prepared by the accountants Deloitte must have made miserable reading for anyone who followed the club: their turnover, wages and attendance were all fractions of the Premier League's giants. And yet Wigan managed to avoid relegation for seven years. It was almost pathological. They defied the laws of football economics. They disobeyed the laws of football gravity.

 

Part of the reason Wigan managed to survive so long in the rarefied air of the Premier League is Dave Whelan, the local magnate who owns the club. Wigan's average attendance was just 17,000 – they rarely sold out their home ground, the DW Stadium, its initials a (self-awarded) tribute to the club's benefactor – on a par with the likes of Vitesse Arnhem or the average Gennan second-division side, but half the Premier League's average. That's a considerable shortfall in revenue. It's the same when we look at television and commercial earnings: in 2010-11, they earned £50.5 million from all of these streams – a tidy sum, to be sure, but half what the average Premier League team took. Only because of Whelan's enduring generosity did the club avoid sinking into the red. In 2011-12, he wrote off a £48 million loan to the club to balance the books. Financially. Wigan could not compete. And yet on the pitch they did.

 

In truth, Wigan did not dramatically outperform their wage bill, the gauge – for Kuper and Szymanski – of a manager's true impact. From 2006 to 2011, they finished eighteenth, fifteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth and sixteenth in the salary league, not far off their finishes in the actual division. Yet Wigan's continued survival was still, as the respected financial blog The Swiss Ramble had it, ka minor modern miracle'. To explain why. we have to consider the odds that – given their spending on wages – Wigan would have been relegated well before the final axe fell in 2013. To do that properly, we need to calculate the odds of relegation as a function of a club's payroll.

 

The notional odds of relegation from the Premier League in any given season, for any team, are 15 per cent: three sides out of twenty endure the pain of demotion every year. But of course those three clubs are not simply drawn out of a hat: money does matter. More specifically, when we examined twenty years of club finances with the help of data from Deloitte, we found that a club's odds of relegation are 7.2 per cent if its wage spends is greater than average. In other words, you can halve the chances of being relegated just by spending a little more on your salaries than the average side. But for clubs that spend less, the odds of relegation, shoot up from 15 to 21 per cent. For a team that spends as little as Wigan or less, these odds can even be as high as 44 per cent in any given season.

 

 

Spending less isn't a death sentence, but you are flirting with the chair. And spending less than the average year after year means the odds of rejegation accumulate. For Wigan, the odds that they would be relegated at some point over the five Premier League seasons to 2012 were 95 per cent. It was, both mathematically and financially, almost a certainty. With wage bills four, two, and one and a half times Wigan's £40 million. Manchester United, Aston Villa and Fulham faced odds of demotion of 0, 3 1 and 69 per cent, respectively.

 

All this suggests that Wigan's continued survival was more than just good luck, and it was not simply attributable to their individual wage spending in any given year: the numbers were squarely against them. So Wigan's story is not just about money, but also how that money is put to use. By any standard measure Wigan had been a mediocre team for a long time. They conceded more goals than they scored in every season they were in the Premier League. They tended to have more possession than most of their peers at the wrong end of the table, but much of that came from the sterile domination of their own half. Roberto Martinez's team, though, had been doing more than just passing the ball around at the back and getting lucky.

 

With the help of Ramzi Ben Said, a student at Cornell University, and the performance chalkboards published online by the British newspaper the Guardian in conjunction with Opta Sports, we tried to establish how Wigan went about scoring their goals in the 2010-11 season. Ramzi collected and coded a year's worth of data of attacking production (how each Premier League club scored their goals that season).

 

The data showed that the vast majority – 66 per cent – of the 1.4 goals a team scored in the average match that year came from open play. By far the smallest proportion of goals came from direct free kicks: just 2.8 per cent per team, per match. The average team produced one goal a game from open play, but needed to take thirty-five direct free kicks before finding the net that way.

 

But Martinez's Wigan was not your typical club. In 2010-11, they created goals in extremely unusual ways. They relied much less on traditional open-play goals than most, and did not bother with anything that resembled a patient build-up. In half their games they failed to score from open play at all. When they did, they tended to come from what are known ariiong analysts as 'fast breaks" – lightning-quick counter-attacks. And the rest of their goals came from free kicks. Their output in both these categories was exceptional. They scored twice as many goals on the break as the average side, and they scored almost four times as many goals from free kicks.

 

Rather than choosing one or the other, Martinez as a manager seemed to have forsaken both high frequency – not scoring from the most common source of goals – as well as good odds – trying to score from low probability shots (free kicks) – as a way to win matches. Martinez was not trying to fight his opponents in a conventional way. Instead, he was beating them any way he could. Albert Larcada, an analyst at ESPN's Stats &. Information Group, filled in the picture further. Using Opta's master file of play-by-play data, Larcada discovered Wigan were unusual in a number of other ways.

 

Not only did they score from fast breaks and free kicks, but when Larcada calculated the average distances from which Premier League clubs attempted shots that season, Wigan were the overall league leaders. Their average shooting distance was some twenty-six yards. This looked deliberate: their goals came from a longer distance than any of their peers – an average of 18.5 yards, way ahead of second-placed Tottenham, while their players Charles N'Zogbia and Hugo Rodallega both finished in the top five scorers from distance in the Premier League in 2010-11.

 

Martinez was thinking outside the box in the most literal fashion. Indeed, his team had the lowest number of goals scored from inside the penalty area of any side in the league – just twenty-eight, compared to Manchester United's sixty-nine. This sounds very defensive – hitting teams on the break, relying on set pieces and long-range shots -but Wigan's formations told a more nuanced story. Martinez's strategy relied on highly accurate long-range shooting, firing from distance – allowing his team to recover their defensive shape more easily – and persistence. He did not place any emphasis on corners – Wigan scored just one goal from a corner in the entire 2010-11 season – because it meant allowing his troops out of hiding and into open sight, leaving them vulnerable. Martinez was playing guerrilla football. He had his team lie in wait for their opponents and then punish them on the counter-attack. He employed sharpshooters, to Let fly from distance, and snipers, to hit free kicks. His team were adaptable, unpredictable.

Question:

Wigan's playing style has been termed as 'guerrilla football' because:

  1. Instead of deciding to play with a team full of superstars, they were relying mainly on junior players with less professional experience, which resulted into poorer performance of the team.
  1. The team was among the lowest scoring teams in the English Premier League in all the years they played.
  1. Instead of attacking style of playmaking the team played a counter-attack based ie, and depended heavily on goals scored from distance and through free kicks, getting back to defensive positions quickly.
  1. All of the above

 


Solution:

(C) Refer the last paragraph


Question 5

CASE

No club in the English Premier League generated less money than Wigan Athletic. No club in the Premier League had so little history, or so few fans. Ever since 2005, when they won promotion to the top flight for the first time in their existence, Wigan started the season listening to prophecies of doom. 2013 was the year that football gravity finally caught up with them, and they returned to their 'rightful" place among the also-rans. Even as the naysayers and doubters were ignoring seven years of wrong forecasts and congratulating themselves for seeing Wigan's fate, this little David took out one last Goliath. Manchester City, in the FA Cup final.

 

In their book Why England Lose, the football journalist Simon Kuper and the economist Stefan Szymanski found that money matters a great deal for the success of football clubs. According to their calculations. 92 per cent of the differences in English football clubs' league position can be explained by a club's relative wage bill. It might not be the case that the team with the highest wage bill finishes top each and every season, but over the long term, the correlation is uncanny. At the other end of the table, it seems inevitable that, eventually, in football poverty will drag you down.

 

P-'or Wigan, this was unfortunate. The annual reports into football's finances prepared by the accountants Deloitte must have made miserable reading for anyone who followed the club: their turnover, wages and attendance were all fractions of the Premier League's giants. And yet Wigan managed to avoid relegation for seven years. It was almost pathological. They defied the laws of football economics. They disobeyed the laws of football gravity.

 

Part of the reason Wigan managed to survive so long in the rarefied air of the Premier League is Dave Whelan, the local magnate who owns the club. Wigan's average attendance was just 17,000 – they rarely sold out their home ground, the DW Stadium, its initials a (self-awarded) tribute to the club's benefactor – on a par with the likes of Vitesse Arnhem or the average Gennan second-division side, but half the Premier League's average. That's a considerable shortfall in revenue. It's the same when we look at television and commercial earnings: in 2010-11, they earned £50.5 million from all of these streams – a tidy sum, to be sure, but half what the average Premier League team took. Only because of Whelan's enduring generosity did the club avoid sinking into the red. In 2011-12, he wrote off a £48 million loan to the club to balance the books. Financially. Wigan could not compete. And yet on the pitch they did.

 

In truth, Wigan did not dramatically outperform their wage bill, the gauge – for Kuper and Szymanski – of a manager's true impact. From 2006 to 2011, they finished eighteenth, fifteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth and sixteenth in the salary league, not far off their finishes in the actual division. Yet Wigan's continued survival was still, as the respected financial blog The Swiss Ramble had it, ka minor modern miracle'. To explain why. we have to consider the odds that – given their spending on wages – Wigan would have been relegated well before the final axe fell in 2013. To do that properly, we need to calculate the odds of relegation as a function of a club's payroll.

 

The notional odds of relegation from the Premier League in any given season, for any team, are 15 per cent: three sides out of twenty endure the pain of demotion every year. But of course those three clubs are not simply drawn out of a hat: money does matter. More specifically, when we examined twenty years of club finances with the help of data from Deloitte, we found that a club's odds of relegation are 7.2 per cent if its wage spends is greater than average. In other words, you can halve the chances of being relegated just by spending a little more on your salaries than the average side. But for clubs that spend less, the odds of relegation, shoot up from 15 to 21 per cent. For a team that spends as little as Wigan or less, these odds can even be as high as 44 per cent in any given season.

 

 

Spending less isn't a death sentence, but you are flirting with the chair. And spending less than the average year after year means the odds of rejegation accumulate. For Wigan, the odds that they would be relegated at some point over the five Premier League seasons to 2012 were 95 per cent. It was, both mathematically and financially, almost a certainty. With wage bills four, two, and one and a half times Wigan's £40 million. Manchester United, Aston Villa and Fulham faced odds of demotion of 0, 3 1 and 69 per cent, respectively.

 

All this suggests that Wigan's continued survival was more than just good luck, and it was not simply attributable to their individual wage spending in any given year: the numbers were squarely against them. So Wigan's story is not just about money, but also how that money is put to use. By any standard measure Wigan had been a mediocre team for a long time. They conceded more goals than they scored in every season they were in the Premier League. They tended to have more possession than most of their peers at the wrong end of the table, but much of that came from the sterile domination of their own half. Roberto Martinez's team, though, had been doing more than just passing the ball around at the back and getting lucky.

 

With the help of Ramzi Ben Said, a student at Cornell University, and the performance chalkboards published online by the British newspaper the Guardian in conjunction with Opta Sports, we tried to establish how Wigan went about scoring their goals in the 2010-11 season. Ramzi collected and coded a year's worth of data of attacking production (how each Premier League club scored their goals that season).

 

The data showed that the vast majority – 66 per cent – of the 1.4 goals a team scored in the average match that year came from open play. By far the smallest proportion of goals came from direct free kicks: just 2.8 per cent per team, per match. The average team produced one goal a game from open play, but needed to take thirty-five direct free kicks before finding the net that way.

 

But Martinez's Wigan was not your typical club. In 2010-11, they created goals in extremely unusual ways. They relied much less on traditional open-play goals than most, and did not bother with anything that resembled a patient build-up. In half their games they failed to score from open play at all. When they did, they tended to come from what are known ariiong analysts as 'fast breaks" – lightning-quick counter-attacks. And the rest of their goals came from free kicks. Their output in both these categories was exceptional. They scored twice as many goals on the break as the average side, and they scored almost four times as many goals from free kicks.

 

Rather than choosing one or the other, Martinez as a manager seemed to have forsaken both high frequency – not scoring from the most common source of goals – as well as good odds – trying to score from low probability shots (free kicks) – as a way to win matches. Martinez was not trying to fight his opponents in a conventional way. Instead, he was beating them any way he could. Albert Larcada, an analyst at ESPN's Stats &. Information Group, filled in the picture further. Using Opta's master file of play-by-play data, Larcada discovered Wigan were unusual in a number of other ways.

 

Not only did they score from fast breaks and free kicks, but when Larcada calculated the average distances from which Premier League clubs attempted shots that season, Wigan were the overall league leaders. Their average shooting distance was some twenty-six yards. This looked deliberate: their goals came from a longer distance than any of their peers – an average of 18.5 yards, way ahead of second-placed Tottenham, while their players Charles N'Zogbia and Hugo Rodallega both finished in the top five scorers from distance in the Premier League in 2010-11.

 

Martinez was thinking outside the box in the most literal fashion. Indeed, his team had the lowest number of goals scored from inside the penalty area of any side in the league – just twenty-eight, compared to Manchester United's sixty-nine. This sounds very defensive – hitting teams on the break, relying on set pieces and long-range shots -but Wigan's formations told a more nuanced story. Martinez's strategy relied on highly accurate long-range shooting, firing from distance – allowing his team to recover their defensive shape more easily – and persistence. He did not place any emphasis on corners – Wigan scored just one goal from a corner in the entire 2010-11 season – because it meant allowing his troops out of hiding and into open sight, leaving them vulnerable. Martinez was playing guerrilla football. He had his team lie in wait for their opponents and then punish them on the counter-attack. He employed sharpshooters, to Let fly from distance, and snipers, to hit free kicks. His team were adaptable, unpredictable.

Question:

Identify the incorrect statement:

  1. The data on club finances, collected by Deloitte in the last decade alone, indicates that the odds of relegation of an English Premier League team are 7.2 per cent if the club's spending on wage is greater than average.
  1. The Article suggests that in 2010-11, an average English Premier League team earned around £101 million through television and commercial earnings.
  1. The average attendance in Wigan's matches was around 17,000 and their home matches were held at DW Stadium, named after Dave Whelan, the magnate and owner of the club.
  1. During 2010-11, the goals scored by Wigan from free kicks were as high as almost four times as the goals scored by an average English Premier League team.

 


Solution:

(A)
The relegation data was not indicated by Delloitte. Refer para 3 where delloitte data is mentioned and para 6 where relegation data and its conclusions have been arried at .
B – can be found in para 4 that refers to revenue of Wigan to be $50.5 m is equivalent to half of the average of all leagues.
C – can be directly found in para 3
D – can be found in the last line of the fourth last paragraph.


Question 6

CASE

The tight calendar had calmed him, as did the constant exertion of his authority as a judge. How he relished his power over the classes that had kept his family pinned under their heels for centuries – like the stenographer, for example, who was a Brahmin. There he was, now- crawling into a tiny tent to the side, and there was Jemubhai reclining like a king in a bed carved out of teak, hung with mosquito netting.

"Bed tea", the cook would shout "Baaad tee".

He would sit up to drink.

6.30: he'd bathe in water that had been heated over the fire so it was redolent with the smell of wood smoke and flecked with ash. With a dusting of powder he graced his newly washed face, with a daub of pomade, his hair, Crunched up toast like charcoal from having been toasted upon the flame, with marmalade over the burn.

8.30: he rode into the fields with the local officials and everyone else in the village going along for fun. Followed by an orderly holding an umbrella over his head to shield him from the glare, he measured the fields and checked to make sure his yield estimate matched the headman's statement. Farms were growing less than ten maunds an acre of rice or wheat, and at two rupees a maund, every single man in a village, sometimes, was in debt to the bania. (Nobody knew that Jemubhai himself was noosed, of course, that long ago in the little town of Piphit in Gujarat, money-lenders had sniffed out in him a winning combination of ambition and poverty … that they still sat waiting cross-legged on a soiled mat in the market, snapping their toes, cracking their knuckles in anticipation of repayment …. )

2.00: after lunch, the judge sat at his desk under a tree to try cases, usually in a cross mood, for he disliked the informality, hated the splotch of leaf shadow on him imparting an untidy mongrel look. Also, there was a worse aspect of contamination and corruption: he heard cases in Hindi, but they were recorded in Urdu by the stenographer and translated by the judge into a second record in English, although his own command of Hindi and Urdu was tenuous; the witnesses who couldn't read at all put their thumbprints at the bottom of "Read Over and Acknowledged Correct", as instructed. Nobody could be sure how much of the truth had fallen between languages, between languages and illiteracy; the clarity that justice demanded was nonexistent. Still, despite the leaf shadow and language confusion, he acquired a fearsome reputation for his speech that seemed to belong to no language at all, and for his face like a mask that conveyed something beyond human fallibility. The expression and manner honed here would carry him, eventually, all the way to the high court in Lucknow where, annoyed by lawless pigeons shuttlecocking about those tall, shadowy halls, he would preside, white powdered wig over white powdered face, hammer in hand.

His photograph, thus attired, thus annoyed, was still up on the wall, in a parade of history glorifying the progress of Indian law and order.

4:30: tea had to be perfect, drop scones made in the frying pan. He would embark on them with forehead wrinkled, as if angrily mulling over something important, and then, as it would into his retirement, the draw of the sweet took over, and his stern work face would hatch an expression of tranquillity.

5:30: out he went into the countryside with his fishing rod or gun. The countryside was full of game; lariats of migratory birds lassoed the sky in October; quail and partridge with lines of babies strung out behind whirred by like nursery toys that emit sound with movement; pheasant – fat foolish creatures, made to be shot – went scurrying through the bushes. The thunder of gunshot roiled away, the leaves shivered, and he experienced the profound silence that could come only after violence. One thing was always missing, though, the proof of the pudding, the prize of the action, the manliness in manhood, the partridge for the pot, because he returned with – Nothing!

He was a terrible shot.

8:00: the cook saved his reputation, cooked a chicken, brought it forth, proclaimed it "roast bastard", just as in the Englishman's favourite joke book of natives using incorrect English. But sometimes, eating that roast bustard, the judge felt the joke might also be on him, and he called for another rum, took a big gulp, and kept eating feeling as if he were eating himself, since he, too, was (was he?) part of the fun….

9:00: sipping Ovaltine, he filled out the registers with the day's gleanings. The Petromax lantern would be lit – what a noise it made – insects fording the black to dive – bomb him with soft flowers (moths), with iridescence (beetles). Lines, columns, and squares. He realized truth was best looked at in tiny aggregates, for many baby truths could yet add up to one big size unsavory lie. Last, in his diary also to be submitted to his superiors, he recorded the random observations of a cultured man, someone who was observant, schooled in literature as well as economics; and he made up hunting triumphs: two partridge … one deer with thirty- inch horns….

11:00: he had a hot water bottle in winter, and, in all seasons, to the sound of the wind buffeting the trees and the cook's snoring, he fell asleep.

Question:

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

  1. The judge used to visit the countryside to shoot game
  1. The judge was not a Brahmin
  1. The judge had good command over Hindi and Urdu
  1. The judge owed money to moneylenders in Piphit

 


Solution:

(C) Para 5 at 2:00 clearly mentions that “his own command of Hindi and Urdu was tenuous” so C is the correct Answer.


Question 7

CASE

The tight calendar had calmed him, as did the constant exertion of his authority as a judge. How he relished his power over the classes that had kept his family pinned under their heels for centuries – like the stenographer, for example, who was a Brahmin. There he was, now- crawling into a tiny tent to the side, and there was Jemubhai reclining like a king in a bed carved out of teak, hung with mosquito netting.

"Bed tea", the cook would shout "Baaad tee".

He would sit up to drink.

6.30: he'd bathe in water that had been heated over the fire so it was redolent with the smell of wood smoke and flecked with ash. With a dusting of powder he graced his newly washed face, with a daub of pomade, his hair, Crunched up toast like charcoal from having been toasted upon the flame, with marmalade over the burn.

8.30: he rode into the fields with the local officials and everyone else in the village going along for fun. Followed by an orderly holding an umbrella over his head to shield him from the glare, he measured the fields and checked to make sure his yield estimate matched the headman's statement. Farms were growing less than ten maunds an acre of rice or wheat, and at two rupees a maund, every single man in a village, sometimes, was in debt to the bania. (Nobody knew that Jemubhai himself was noosed, of course, that long ago in the little town of Piphit in Gujarat, money-lenders had sniffed out in him a winning combination of ambition and poverty … that they still sat waiting cross-legged on a soiled mat in the market, snapping their toes, cracking their knuckles in anticipation of repayment …. )

2.00: after lunch, the judge sat at his desk under a tree to try cases, usually in a cross mood, for he disliked the informality, hated the splotch of leaf shadow on him imparting an untidy mongrel look. Also, there was a worse aspect of contamination and corruption: he heard cases in Hindi, but they were recorded in Urdu by the stenographer and translated by the judge into a second record in English, although his own command of Hindi and Urdu was tenuous; the witnesses who couldn't read at all put their thumbprints at the bottom of "Read Over and Acknowledged Correct", as instructed. Nobody could be sure how much of the truth had fallen between languages, between languages and illiteracy; the clarity that justice demanded was nonexistent. Still, despite the leaf shadow and language confusion, he acquired a fearsome reputation for his speech that seemed to belong to no language at all, and for his face like a mask that conveyed something beyond human fallibility. The expression and manner honed here would carry him, eventually, all the way to the high court in Lucknow where, annoyed by lawless pigeons shuttlecocking about those tall, shadowy halls, he would preside, white powdered wig over white powdered face, hammer in hand.

His photograph, thus attired, thus annoyed, was still up on the wall, in a parade of history glorifying the progress of Indian law and order.

4:30: tea had to be perfect, drop scones made in the frying pan. He would embark on them with forehead wrinkled, as if angrily mulling over something important, and then, as it would into his retirement, the draw of the sweet took over, and his stern work face would hatch an expression of tranquillity.

5:30: out he went into the countryside with his fishing rod or gun. The countryside was full of game; lariats of migratory birds lassoed the sky in October; quail and partridge with lines of babies strung out behind whirred by like nursery toys that emit sound with movement; pheasant – fat foolish creatures, made to be shot – went scurrying through the bushes. The thunder of gunshot roiled away, the leaves shivered, and he experienced the profound silence that could come only after violence. One thing was always missing, though, the proof of the pudding, the prize of the action, the manliness in manhood, the partridge for the pot, because he returned with – Nothing!

He was a terrible shot.

8:00: the cook saved his reputation, cooked a chicken, brought it forth, proclaimed it "roast bastard", just as in the Englishman's favourite joke book of natives using incorrect English. But sometimes, eating that roast bustard, the judge felt the joke might also be on him, and he called for another rum, took a big gulp, and kept eating feeling as if he were eating himself, since he, too, was (was he?) part of the fun….

9:00: sipping Ovaltine, he filled out the registers with the day's gleanings. The Petromax lantern would be lit – what a noise it made – insects fording the black to dive – bomb him with soft flowers (moths), with iridescence (beetles). Lines, columns, and squares. He realized truth was best looked at in tiny aggregates, for many baby truths could yet add up to one big size unsavory lie. Last, in his diary also to be submitted to his superiors, he recorded the random observations of a cultured man, someone who was observant, schooled in literature as well as economics; and he made up hunting triumphs: two partridge … one deer with thirty- inch horns….

11:00: he had a hot water bottle in winter, and, in all seasons, to the sound of the wind buffeting the trees and the cook's snoring, he fell asleep.

Question:

What always happened when the judge went to the countryside?

  1. He could not hear any noise and there was only profound silence
  1. He could not manage to hit a single bird
  1. He could not get the proof that the pudding was made from the Patridge
  1. He could not see lariats of migratory birds

 


Solution:

(B) Fourth para at 5:30 mentions “HE returned with – nothing” suggesting that he could not manage to hit a single bird.


Question 8

CASE

The tight calendar had calmed him, as did the constant exertion of his authority as a judge. How he relished his power over the classes that had kept his family pinned under their heels for centuries – like the stenographer, for example, who was a Brahmin. There he was, now- crawling into a tiny tent to the side, and there was Jemubhai reclining like a king in a bed carved out of teak, hung with mosquito netting.

"Bed tea", the cook would shout "Baaad tee".

He would sit up to drink.

6.30: he'd bathe in water that had been heated over the fire so it was redolent with the smell of wood smoke and flecked with ash. With a dusting of powder he graced his newly washed face, with a daub of pomade, his hair, Crunched up toast like charcoal from having been toasted upon the flame, with marmalade over the burn.

8.30: he rode into the fields with the local officials and everyone else in the village going along for fun. Followed by an orderly holding an umbrella over his head to shield him from the glare, he measured the fields and checked to make sure his yield estimate matched the headman's statement. Farms were growing less than ten maunds an acre of rice or wheat, and at two rupees a maund, every single man in a village, sometimes, was in debt to the bania. (Nobody knew that Jemubhai himself was noosed, of course, that long ago in the little town of Piphit in Gujarat, money-lenders had sniffed out in him a winning combination of ambition and poverty … that they still sat waiting cross-legged on a soiled mat in the market, snapping their toes, cracking their knuckles in anticipation of repayment …. )

2.00: after lunch, the judge sat at his desk under a tree to try cases, usually in a cross mood, for he disliked the informality, hated the splotch of leaf shadow on him imparting an untidy mongrel look. Also, there was a worse aspect of contamination and corruption: he heard cases in Hindi, but they were recorded in Urdu by the stenographer and translated by the judge into a second record in English, although his own command of Hindi and Urdu was tenuous; the witnesses who couldn't read at all put their thumbprints at the bottom of "Read Over and Acknowledged Correct", as instructed. Nobody could be sure how much of the truth had fallen between languages, between languages and illiteracy; the clarity that justice demanded was nonexistent. Still, despite the leaf shadow and language confusion, he acquired a fearsome reputation for his speech that seemed to belong to no language at all, and for his face like a mask that conveyed something beyond human fallibility. The expression and manner honed here would carry him, eventually, all the way to the high court in Lucknow where, annoyed by lawless pigeons shuttlecocking about those tall, shadowy halls, he would preside, white powdered wig over white powdered face, hammer in hand.

His photograph, thus attired, thus annoyed, was still up on the wall, in a parade of history glorifying the progress of Indian law and order.

4:30: tea had to be perfect, drop scones made in the frying pan. He would embark on them with forehead wrinkled, as if angrily mulling over something important, and then, as it would into his retirement, the draw of the sweet took over, and his stern work face would hatch an expression of tranquillity.

5:30: out he went into the countryside with his fishing rod or gun. The countryside was full of game; lariats of migratory birds lassoed the sky in October; quail and partridge with lines of babies strung out behind whirred by like nursery toys that emit sound with movement; pheasant – fat foolish creatures, made to be shot – went scurrying through the bushes. The thunder of gunshot roiled away, the leaves shivered, and he experienced the profound silence that could come only after violence. One thing was always missing, though, the proof of the pudding, the prize of the action, the manliness in manhood, the partridge for the pot, because he returned with – Nothing!

He was a terrible shot.

8:00: the cook saved his reputation, cooked a chicken, brought it forth, proclaimed it "roast bastard", just as in the Englishman's favourite joke book of natives using incorrect English. But sometimes, eating that roast bustard, the judge felt the joke might also be on him, and he called for another rum, took a big gulp, and kept eating feeling as if he were eating himself, since he, too, was (was he?) part of the fun….

9:00: sipping Ovaltine, he filled out the registers with the day's gleanings. The Petromax lantern would be lit – what a noise it made – insects fording the black to dive – bomb him with soft flowers (moths), with iridescence (beetles). Lines, columns, and squares. He realized truth was best looked at in tiny aggregates, for many baby truths could yet add up to one big size unsavory lie. Last, in his diary also to be submitted to his superiors, he recorded the random observations of a cultured man, someone who was observant, schooled in literature as well as economics; and he made up hunting triumphs: two partridge … one deer with thirty- inch horns….

11:00: he had a hot water bottle in winter, and, in all seasons, to the sound of the wind buffeting the trees and the cook's snoring, he fell asleep.

Question:

People were in debt to the "bania" because:

  1. Yield per acre did not appear to be very good.
  1. Moneylenders in Piphit were asking all villagers for repayment.
  1. People in the village spent too much time on hunting.
  1. The fields were spoiled when the judge rode around to take measurements.

 


Solution:

(A) Third para at 8:30 mentions the fact “Farms were growing less than ten maunds of rice/wheat per acre”


Question 9

CASE

The tight calendar had calmed him, as did the constant exertion of his authority as a judge. How he relished his power over the classes that had kept his family pinned under their heels for centuries – like the stenographer, for example, who was a Brahmin. There he was, now- crawling into a tiny tent to the side, and there was Jemubhai reclining like a king in a bed carved out of teak, hung with mosquito netting.

"Bed tea", the cook would shout "Baaad tee".

He would sit up to drink.

6.30: he'd bathe in water that had been heated over the fire so it was redolent with the smell of wood smoke and flecked with ash. With a dusting of powder he graced his newly washed face, with a daub of pomade, his hair, Crunched up toast like charcoal from having been toasted upon the flame, with marmalade over the burn.

8.30: he rode into the fields with the local officials and everyone else in the village going along for fun. Followed by an orderly holding an umbrella over his head to shield him from the glare, he measured the fields and checked to make sure his yield estimate matched the headman's statement. Farms were growing less than ten maunds an acre of rice or wheat, and at two rupees a maund, every single man in a village, sometimes, was in debt to the bania. (Nobody knew that Jemubhai himself was noosed, of course, that long ago in the little town of Piphit in Gujarat, money-lenders had sniffed out in him a winning combination of ambition and poverty … that they still sat waiting cross-legged on a soiled mat in the market, snapping their toes, cracking their knuckles in anticipation of repayment …. )

2.00: after lunch, the judge sat at his desk under a tree to try cases, usually in a cross mood, for he disliked the informality, hated the splotch of leaf shadow on him imparting an untidy mongrel look. Also, there was a worse aspect of contamination and corruption: he heard cases in Hindi, but they were recorded in Urdu by the stenographer and translated by the judge into a second record in English, although his own command of Hindi and Urdu was tenuous; the witnesses who couldn't read at all put their thumbprints at the bottom of "Read Over and Acknowledged Correct", as instructed. Nobody could be sure how much of the truth had fallen between languages, between languages and illiteracy; the clarity that justice demanded was nonexistent. Still, despite the leaf shadow and language confusion, he acquired a fearsome reputation for his speech that seemed to belong to no language at all, and for his face like a mask that conveyed something beyond human fallibility. The expression and manner honed here would carry him, eventually, all the way to the high court in Lucknow where, annoyed by lawless pigeons shuttlecocking about those tall, shadowy halls, he would preside, white powdered wig over white powdered face, hammer in hand.

His photograph, thus attired, thus annoyed, was still up on the wall, in a parade of history glorifying the progress of Indian law and order.

4:30: tea had to be perfect, drop scones made in the frying pan. He would embark on them with forehead wrinkled, as if angrily mulling over something important, and then, as it would into his retirement, the draw of the sweet took over, and his stern work face would hatch an expression of tranquillity.

5:30: out he went into the countryside with his fishing rod or gun. The countryside was full of game; lariats of migratory birds lassoed the sky in October; quail and partridge with lines of babies strung out behind whirred by like nursery toys that emit sound with movement; pheasant – fat foolish creatures, made to be shot – went scurrying through the bushes. The thunder of gunshot roiled away, the leaves shivered, and he experienced the profound silence that could come only after violence. One thing was always missing, though, the proof of the pudding, the prize of the action, the manliness in manhood, the partridge for the pot, because he returned with – Nothing!

He was a terrible shot.

8:00: the cook saved his reputation, cooked a chicken, brought it forth, proclaimed it "roast bastard", just as in the Englishman's favourite joke book of natives using incorrect English. But sometimes, eating that roast bustard, the judge felt the joke might also be on him, and he called for another rum, took a big gulp, and kept eating feeling as if he were eating himself, since he, too, was (was he?) part of the fun….

9:00: sipping Ovaltine, he filled out the registers with the day's gleanings. The Petromax lantern would be lit – what a noise it made – insects fording the black to dive – bomb him with soft flowers (moths), with iridescence (beetles). Lines, columns, and squares. He realized truth was best looked at in tiny aggregates, for many baby truths could yet add up to one big size unsavory lie. Last, in his diary also to be submitted to his superiors, he recorded the random observations of a cultured man, someone who was observant, schooled in literature as well as economics; and he made up hunting triumphs: two partridge … one deer with thirty- inch horns….

11:00: he had a hot water bottle in winter, and, in all seasons, to the sound of the wind buffeting the trees and the cook's snoring, he fell asleep.

Question:

Which is the odd one out:

  1. Lariat
  1. Brood
  1. Flock
  1. Flight

 


Solution:

(B) Brood is the only word which is not a collective noun.


Question 10

CASE

The movement to expel the Austrians from Italy and unite Italy under a republican government had been gaining momentum while Garibaldi was away. There was a growing clamour, not just from Giuseppe Mazzini's republicans, but from moderates as well, for a General capable of leading Italy to independence. Even the King of Piedmont, for whom Garibaldi was still an outlaw under sentence of death, subscribed to an appeal for a sword for the returning hero. Meanwhile, the 'year of revolutions', 1848, had occurred in which Louis Philippe had been toppled from the French throne. In Austria, an uprising triggered off insurrections in Venice and Milan, and the Austrian garrisons were forced out. The King of Piedmont, Charles Albert ordered his troops to occupy these cities. There had also been insurrections in Sicily, causing the King Ferdinand II, to grant major constitutional freedoms in 1849, prompting both the Pope and Charles Albert to grant further concessions.

Meanwhile, largely ignorant of these developments, Garibaldi was approaching Italy at a leisurely pace, arriving at Nice on 23 June 1848 to a tumultuous reception. The hero declared himself willing to fight and lay down his life for Charles Albert, who he now regarded as a bastion of Italian nationalism.

Mazzini and the republicans were horrified, regarding this as outright betrayal: did it reflect Garibaldi's innate simple-mindedness, his patriotism in the war against Austria, or was it part of a deal with the monarchy? Charles Albert had pardoned Garibaldi, but to outward appearances he was still very wary of the General and the Italian Legion he had amassed of 150 'brigands'. The two men met near Mantua, and the King appeared to dislike him instantly. He suggested that Garibaldi's men should join his army and that Garibaldi should go to Venice and captain a ship as a privateer against the Austrians.

Garibaldi, meanwhile, met his former hero Mazzini for the first time, and again the encounter was frosty. Seemingly rebuffed on all sides, Garibaldi considered going to Sicily to fight King Ferdinand II of Naples, but changed his mind when the Milanese offered him the post of General – something they badly needed when Charles Albert's Piedmontese army was defeated at Custoza by the Austrians. With around 1,000 men, Garibaldi marched into the mountains at Varese, commenting bitterly: 'The King of Sardinia may have a crown that he holds on to by dint of misdeeds and cowardice, but my comrades and I do not wish to hold on to our lives by shameful actions'.

The King of Piedmont offered an armistice to the Austrians and all the gains in northern Italy were lost again. Garibaldi returned to Nice and then across to Genoa, where he learned that, in September 1848, Ferdinand II had bombed Messina as a prelude to invasion – an atrocity which caused him to be dubbed 'King Bomba'. Reaching Livorno he was diverted yet again and set off across the Italian peninsula with 350 men to come to Venice's assistance, but on the way, in Bologna, he learned that the Pope had taken refuge with King Bomba. Garibaldi promptly altered course southwards towards Rome where he was greeted once again as a hero. Rome proclaimed itself a Republic. Garibaldi's Legion had swollen to nearly 1,300 men, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany fled Florence before the advancing republican force.

However, the Austrians marched southwards to place the Grand Duke of Tuscany back on his throne. Prince Louis Napoleon of France despatched an army of 7,000 men under General Charles Oudinot to the port of Civitavecchia to seize the city. Garibaldi was appointed as a General to defend Rome.

The republicans had around 9,000 men, and Garibaldi was given control of more than 4,000 to defend the Janiculum Hill, which was crucial to the defence of Rome, as it commanded the city over the Tiber. Some 5,000 well-equipped French troops arrived on 30 April 1849 at Porta Cavallegeri in the old walls of Rome, but failed to get through, and were attacked from behind by Garibaldi, who led a baton charge and was grazed by a bullet slightly on his side. The French lost 500 dead and wounded, along with some 350 prisoners, to the Italians, 200 dead and wounded. It was a famous victory, wildly celebrated by the Romans into the night, and the French signed a tactical truce.

However, other armies were on the march: Bomba's 12,500-strong Neapolitan army was approaching from the south, while the Austrians had attacked Bologna in the north. Garibaldi took a force out of Rome and engaged in a flanking movement across the Neapolitan army's rear at Castelli Romani; the Neapolitans attacked and were driven off, leaving 50 dead. Garibaldi accompanied the Roman General, Piero Roselli, in an attack on the retreating Neapolitan army. Foolishly leading a patrol of his men right out in front of his forces, he tried to stop a group of his cavalry retreating and fell under their horses, with the enemy slashing at him with their sabres. He was rescued by his legionnaires, narrowly having avoided being killed, but Roselli had missed the chance to encircle the Neapolitan army.

Garibaldi boldly wanted to carry the fight down into the Kingdom of Naples, but Mazzini, who by now was effectively in charge of Rome, ordered him back to the capital to face the danger of Austrian attack from the north. In fact, it was the French who arrived on the outskirts of Rome first, with an army now reinforced by 30,000. Mazzini realized that Rome could not resist and ordered a symbolic stand within the city itself, rather than surrender, for the purposes of international propaganda and to keep the struggle alive, whatever the cost. On 3 June the French arrived in force and seized the strategic country house, Villa Pamphili.

Garibaldi rallied his forces and fought feverishly to retake the villa up narrow and steep city streets, capturing it, then losing it again. By the end of the day, the sides had 1,000 dead between them. Garibaldi once again had been in the thick of the fray, giving orders to his troops and fighting, it was said, like a lion. Although beaten off for the moment, the French imposed a siege in the morning, starving the city of provisions and bombarding its beautiful centre.

On 30 June the French attacked again in force, while Garibaldi, at the head of his troops, fought back ferociously. But there was no prospect of holding the French off indefinitely, and Garibaldi decided to take his men out of the city to continue resistance in the mountains. Mazzini fled to Britain while Garibaldi remained to fight for the cause. He had just 4,000 men, divided into two legions, and faced some 17,000 Austrians and Tuscans in the north, 30,000 Neapolitans and Spanish in the south, and 40,000 French in the west. He was being directly pursued by 8,000 French and was approaching Neapolitan and Spanish divisions of some 18,000 men. He stood no chance whatever. The rugged hill country was ideal, however, for his style of irregular guerrilla warfare, and he manoeuvred skilfully, marching and counter-marching in different directions, confounding his pursuers before finally aiming for Arezzo in the north. But his men were deserting in droves and local people were hostile to his army: he was soon reduced to 1500 men who struggled across the high mountain passes to San Marino where he found temporary refuge.

The Austrians, now approaching, demanded that he go into exile in America. He was determined to fight on and urged the ill and pregnant Anita, his wife, to stay behind in San Marino, but she would not hear of it. The pair set off with 200 loyal soldiers along the mountain tracks to the Adriatic coast, from where Garibaldi intended to embark for Venice which was still valiantly holding out against the Austrians. They embarked aboard 13 fishing boats and managed to sail to within 50 miles of the Venetian lagoon before being spotted by an Austrian flotilla and fired upon.

Only two of Garibaldi's boats escaped. He carried Anita through the shallows to a beach and they moved further inland. The ailing Anita was placed in a cart and they reached a farmhouse, where she died. Her husband broke down into inconsolable wailing and she was buried in a shallow grave near the farmhouse, but was transferred to a churchyard a few days later. Garibaldi had no time to lose; he and his faithful companion Leggero escaped across the Po towards Ravenna.

At last Garibaidi was persuaded to abandon his insane attempts to reach Venice by sea and to return along less guarded routes on the perilous mountain paths across the Apennines towards the western coast of Italy. He visited his family in Nice for an emotional reunion with his mother and his three children – but lacked the courage to tell them what had happened to their mother.

Question:

Find the correct statement:

  1. Garibaldi had a sore relationship with King Charles Albert before 1849, which however greatly improved in the subsequent period.
  1. Garibaldi's wife Anita Garibaldi passed away at a farmhouse, after their journey to Venice was interrupted by a Spanish flotilla.
  1. After defeat of the republican army in the battle of Rome, a total of 80000 foreign soldiers were moving in Italy across all directions, while Garibaldi was being directly pursued by 8000 French forces.
  1. When Garibaldi and his wife left San Marino after threat from the Austrians, they were accompanied by 200 soldiers who were still loyal to him.

 


Solution:


Question 11

CASE

The movement to expel the Austrians from Italy and unite Italy under a republican government had been gaining momentum while Garibaldi was away. There was a growing clamour, not just from Giuseppe Mazzini's republicans, but from moderates as well, for a General capable of leading Italy to independence. Even the King of Piedmont, for whom Garibaldi was still an outlaw under sentence of death, subscribed to an appeal for a sword for the returning hero. Meanwhile, the 'year of revolutions', 1848, had occurred in which Louis Philippe had been toppled from the French throne. In Austria, an uprising triggered off insurrections in Venice and Milan, and the Austrian garrisons were forced out. The King of Piedmont, Charles Albert ordered his troops to occupy these cities. There had also been insurrections in Sicily, causing the King Ferdinand II, to grant major constitutional freedoms in 1849, prompting both the Pope and Charles Albert to grant further concessions.

Meanwhile, largely ignorant of these developments, Garibaldi was approaching Italy at a leisurely pace, arriving at Nice on 23 June 1848 to a tumultuous reception. The hero declared himself willing to fight and lay down his life for Charles Albert, who he now regarded as a bastion of Italian nationalism.

Mazzini and the republicans were horrified, regarding this as outright betrayal: did it reflect Garibaldi's innate simple-mindedness, his patriotism in the war against Austria, or was it part of a deal with the monarchy? Charles Albert had pardoned Garibaldi, but to outward appearances he was still very wary of the General and the Italian Legion he had amassed of 150 'brigands'. The two men met near Mantua, and the King appeared to dislike him instantly. He suggested that Garibaldi's men should join his army and that Garibaldi should go to Venice and captain a ship as a privateer against the Austrians.

Garibaldi, meanwhile, met his former hero Mazzini for the first time, and again the encounter was frosty. Seemingly rebuffed on all sides, Garibaldi considered going to Sicily to fight King Ferdinand II of Naples, but changed his mind when the Milanese offered him the post of General – something they badly needed when Charles Albert's Piedmontese army was defeated at Custoza by the Austrians. With around 1,000 men, Garibaldi marched into the mountains at Varese, commenting bitterly: 'The King of Sardinia may have a crown that he holds on to by dint of misdeeds and cowardice, but my comrades and I do not wish to hold on to our lives by shameful actions'.

The King of Piedmont offered an armistice to the Austrians and all the gains in northern Italy were lost again. Garibaldi returned to Nice and then across to Genoa, where he learned that, in September 1848, Ferdinand II had bombed Messina as a prelude to invasion – an atrocity which caused him to be dubbed 'King Bomba'. Reaching Livorno he was diverted yet again and set off across the Italian peninsula with 350 men to come to Venice's assistance, but on the way, in Bologna, he learned that the Pope had taken refuge with King Bomba. Garibaldi promptly altered course southwards towards Rome where he was greeted once again as a hero. Rome proclaimed itself a Republic. Garibaldi's Legion had swollen to nearly 1,300 men, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany fled Florence before the advancing republican force.

However, the Austrians marched southwards to place the Grand Duke of Tuscany back on his throne. Prince Louis Napoleon of France despatched an army of 7,000 men under General Charles Oudinot to the port of Civitavecchia to seize the city. Garibaldi was appointed as a General to defend Rome.

The republicans had around 9,000 men, and Garibaldi was given control of more than 4,000 to defend the Janiculum Hill, which was crucial to the defence of Rome, as it commanded the city over the Tiber. Some 5,000 well-equipped French troops arrived on 30 April 1849 at Porta Cavallegeri in the old walls of Rome, but failed to get through, and were attacked from behind by Garibaldi, who led a baton charge and was grazed by a bullet slightly on his side. The French lost 500 dead and wounded, along with some 350 prisoners, to the Italians, 200 dead and wounded. It was a famous victory, wildly celebrated by the Romans into the night, and the French signed a tactical truce.

However, other armies were on the march: Bomba's 12,500-strong Neapolitan army was approaching from the south, while the Austrians had attacked Bologna in the north. Garibaldi took a force out of Rome and engaged in a flanking movement across the Neapolitan army's rear at Castelli Romani; the Neapolitans attacked and were driven off, leaving 50 dead. Garibaldi accompanied the Roman General, Piero Roselli, in an attack on the retreating Neapolitan army. Foolishly leading a patrol of his men right out in front of his forces, he tried to stop a group of his cavalry retreating and fell under their horses, with the enemy slashing at him with their sabres. He was rescued by his legionnaires, narrowly having avoided being killed, but Roselli had missed the chance to encircle the Neapolitan army.

Garibaldi boldly wanted to carry the fight down into the Kingdom of Naples, but Mazzini, who by now was effectively in charge of Rome, ordered him back to the capital to face the danger of Austrian attack from the north. In fact, it was the French who arrived on the outskirts of Rome first, with an army now reinforced by 30,000. Mazzini realized that Rome could not resist and ordered a symbolic stand within the city itself, rather than surrender, for the purposes of international propaganda and to keep the struggle alive, whatever the cost. On 3 June the French arrived in force and seized the strategic country house, Villa Pamphili.

Garibaldi rallied his forces and fought feverishly to retake the villa up narrow and steep city streets, capturing it, then losing it again. By the end of the day, the sides had 1,000 dead between them. Garibaldi once again had been in the thick of the fray, giving orders to his troops and fighting, it was said, like a lion. Although beaten off for the moment, the French imposed a siege in the morning, starving the city of provisions and bombarding its beautiful centre.

On 30 June the French attacked again in force, while Garibaldi, at the head of his troops, fought back ferociously. But there was no prospect of holding the French off indefinitely, and Garibaldi decided to take his men out of the city to continue resistance in the mountains. Mazzini fled to Britain while Garibaldi remained to fight for the cause. He had just 4,000 men, divided into two legions, and faced some 17,000 Austrians and Tuscans in the north, 30,000 Neapolitans and Spanish in the south, and 40,000 French in the west. He was being directly pursued by 8,000 French and was approaching Neapolitan and Spanish divisions of some 18,000 men. He stood no chance whatever. The rugged hill country was ideal, however, for his style of irregular guerrilla warfare, and he manoeuvred skilfully, marching and counter-marching in different directions, confounding his pursuers before finally aiming for Arezzo in the north. But his men were deserting in droves and local people were hostile to his army: he was soon reduced to 1500 men who struggled across the high mountain passes to San Marino where he found temporary refuge.

The Austrians, now approaching, demanded that he go into exile in America. He was determined to fight on and urged the ill and pregnant Anita, his wife, to stay behind in San Marino, but she would not hear of it. The pair set off with 200 loyal soldiers along the mountain tracks to the Adriatic coast, from where Garibaldi intended to embark for Venice which was still valiantly holding out against the Austrians. They embarked aboard 13 fishing boats and managed to sail to within 50 miles of the Venetian lagoon before being spotted by an Austrian flotilla and fired upon.

Only two of Garibaldi's boats escaped. He carried Anita through the shallows to a beach and they moved further inland. The ailing Anita was placed in a cart and they reached a farmhouse, where she died. Her husband broke down into inconsolable wailing and she was buried in a shallow grave near the farmhouse, but was transferred to a churchyard a few days later. Garibaldi had no time to lose; he and his faithful companion Leggero escaped across the Po towards Ravenna.

At last Garibaidi was persuaded to abandon his insane attempts to reach Venice by sea and to return along less guarded routes on the perilous mountain paths across the Apennines towards the western coast of Italy. He visited his family in Nice for an emotional reunion with his mother and his three children – but lacked the courage to tell them what had happened to their mother.

Question:

Which of the following statements can be deduced from the passage?

  1. King of Naples was given the name 'King Bomba', when he bombed Milan before the invasion that he was planning.
  1. During the defence of Rome from the attack of Austrian troops, Garibaldi positioned his army near the Janiculum Hill.
  1. While Garibaldi was fighting in Italy for unification of the country, his children stayed at Nice.
  1. At the time when Garibaldi returned to meet King Charles Albert at Mantua, Giuseppe Mazzini was a major leader of the Italian moderates.

 


Solution:


Question 12

CASE

The movement to expel the Austrians from Italy and unite Italy under a republican government had been gaining momentum while Garibaldi was away. There was a growing clamour, not just from Giuseppe Mazzini's republicans, but from moderates as well, for a General capable of leading Italy to independence. Even the King of Piedmont, for whom Garibaldi was still an outlaw under sentence of death, subscribed to an appeal for a sword for the returning hero. Meanwhile, the 'year of revolutions', 1848, had occurred in which Louis Philippe had been toppled from the French throne. In Austria, an uprising triggered off insurrections in Venice and Milan, and the Austrian garrisons were forced out. The King of Piedmont, Charles Albert ordered his troops to occupy these cities. There had also been insurrections in Sicily, causing the King Ferdinand II, to grant major constitutional freedoms in 1849, prompting both the Pope and Charles Albert to grant further concessions.

Meanwhile, largely ignorant of these developments, Garibaldi was approaching Italy at a leisurely pace, arriving at Nice on 23 June 1848 to a tumultuous reception. The hero declared himself willing to fight and lay down his life for Charles Albert, who he now regarded as a bastion of Italian nationalism.

Mazzini and the republicans were horrified, regarding this as outright betrayal: did it reflect Garibaldi's innate simple-mindedness, his patriotism in the war against Austria, or was it part of a deal with the monarchy? Charles Albert had pardoned Garibaldi, but to outward appearances he was still very wary of the General and the Italian Legion he had amassed of 150 'brigands'. The two men met near Mantua, and the King appeared to dislike him instantly. He suggested that Garibaldi's men should join his army and that Garibaldi should go to Venice and captain a ship as a privateer against the Austrians.

Garibaldi, meanwhile, met his former hero Mazzini for the first time, and again the encounter was frosty. Seemingly rebuffed on all sides, Garibaldi considered going to Sicily to fight King Ferdinand II of Naples, but changed his mind when the Milanese offered him the post of General – something they badly needed when Charles Albert's Piedmontese army was defeated at Custoza by the Austrians. With around 1,000 men, Garibaldi marched into the mountains at Varese, commenting bitterly: 'The King of Sardinia may have a crown that he holds on to by dint of misdeeds and cowardice, but my comrades and I do not wish to hold on to our lives by shameful actions'.

The King of Piedmont offered an armistice to the Austrians and all the gains in northern Italy were lost again. Garibaldi returned to Nice and then across to Genoa, where he learned that, in September 1848, Ferdinand II had bombed Messina as a prelude to invasion – an atrocity which caused him to be dubbed 'King Bomba'. Reaching Livorno he was diverted yet again and set off across the Italian peninsula with 350 men to come to Venice's assistance, but on the way, in Bologna, he learned that the Pope had taken refuge with King Bomba. Garibaldi promptly altered course southwards towards Rome where he was greeted once again as a hero. Rome proclaimed itself a Republic. Garibaldi's Legion had swollen to nearly 1,300 men, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany fled Florence before the advancing republican force.

However, the Austrians marched southwards to place the Grand Duke of Tuscany back on his throne. Prince Louis Napoleon of France despatched an army of 7,000 men under General Charles Oudinot to the port of Civitavecchia to seize the city. Garibaldi was appointed as a General to defend Rome.

The republicans had around 9,000 men, and Garibaldi was given control of more than 4,000 to defend the Janiculum Hill, which was crucial to the defence of Rome, as it commanded the city over the Tiber. Some 5,000 well-equipped French troops arrived on 30 April 1849 at Porta Cavallegeri in the old walls of Rome, but failed to get through, and were attacked from behind by Garibaldi, who led a baton charge and was grazed by a bullet slightly on his side. The French lost 500 dead and wounded, along with some 350 prisoners, to the Italians, 200 dead and wounded. It was a famous victory, wildly celebrated by the Romans into the night, and the French signed a tactical truce.

However, other armies were on the march: Bomba's 12,500-strong Neapolitan army was approaching from the south, while the Austrians had attacked Bologna in the north. Garibaldi took a force out of Rome and engaged in a flanking movement across the Neapolitan army's rear at Castelli Romani; the Neapolitans attacked and were driven off, leaving 50 dead. Garibaldi accompanied the Roman General, Piero Roselli, in an attack on the retreating Neapolitan army. Foolishly leading a patrol of his men right out in front of his forces, he tried to stop a group of his cavalry retreating and fell under their horses, with the enemy slashing at him with their sabres. He was rescued by his legionnaires, narrowly having avoided being killed, but Roselli had missed the chance to encircle the Neapolitan army.

Garibaldi boldly wanted to carry the fight down into the Kingdom of Naples, but Mazzini, who by now was effectively in charge of Rome, ordered him back to the capital to face the danger of Austrian attack from the north. In fact, it was the French who arrived on the outskirts of Rome first, with an army now reinforced by 30,000. Mazzini realized that Rome could not resist and ordered a symbolic stand within the city itself, rather than surrender, for the purposes of international propaganda and to keep the struggle alive, whatever the cost. On 3 June the French arrived in force and seized the strategic country house, Villa Pamphili.

Garibaldi rallied his forces and fought feverishly to retake the villa up narrow and steep city streets, capturing it, then losing it again. By the end of the day, the sides had 1,000 dead between them. Garibaldi once again had been in the thick of the fray, giving orders to his troops and fighting, it was said, like a lion. Although beaten off for the moment, the French imposed a siege in the morning, starving the city of provisions and bombarding its beautiful centre.

On 30 June the French attacked again in force, while Garibaldi, at the head of his troops, fought back ferociously. But there was no prospect of holding the French off indefinitely, and Garibaldi decided to take his men out of the city to continue resistance in the mountains. Mazzini fled to Britain while Garibaldi remained to fight for the cause. He had just 4,000 men, divided into two legions, and faced some 17,000 Austrians and Tuscans in the north, 30,000 Neapolitans and Spanish in the south, and 40,000 French in the west. He was being directly pursued by 8,000 French and was approaching Neapolitan and Spanish divisions of some 18,000 men. He stood no chance whatever. The rugged hill country was ideal, however, for his style of irregular guerrilla warfare, and he manoeuvred skilfully, marching and counter-marching in different directions, confounding his pursuers before finally aiming for Arezzo in the north. But his men were deserting in droves and local people were hostile to his army: he was soon reduced to 1500 men who struggled across the high mountain passes to San Marino where he found temporary refuge.

The Austrians, now approaching, demanded that he go into exile in America. He was determined to fight on and urged the ill and pregnant Anita, his wife, to stay behind in San Marino, but she would not hear of it. The pair set off with 200 loyal soldiers along the mountain tracks to the Adriatic coast, from where Garibaldi intended to embark for Venice which was still valiantly holding out against the Austrians. They embarked aboard 13 fishing boats and managed to sail to within 50 miles of the Venetian lagoon before being spotted by an Austrian flotilla and fired upon.

Only two of Garibaldi's boats escaped. He carried Anita through the shallows to a beach and they moved further inland. The ailing Anita was placed in a cart and they reached a farmhouse, where she died. Her husband broke down into inconsolable wailing and she was buried in a shallow grave near the farmhouse, but was transferred to a churchyard a few days later. Garibaldi had no time to lose; he and his faithful companion Leggero escaped across the Po towards Ravenna.

At last Garibaidi was persuaded to abandon his insane attempts to reach Venice by sea and to return along less guarded routes on the perilous mountain paths across the Apennines towards the western coast of Italy. He visited his family in Nice for an emotional reunion with his mother and his three children – but lacked the courage to tell them what had happened to their mother.

Question:

Match the Following:

Name

Place

  1. Charles Albert
  1. Naples
  1. Ferdinand II
  1. Tuscany
  1. Louis Philippe
  1. Piedmont
  1. Grand Duke
  1. France

 

  1. i-c, ii-a, iii-d, iv-b
  1. i-c, ii-b, iii-a, iv-d
  1. i-a, ii-c, iii-d, iv-b
  1. i-b, ii-a, iii-d, iv-c

 


Solution:

(C)
(i) – (c) Given in the firstparagraph of the passage
(ii) – (a)
(iii) – (d) Given in the first paragraph of the passage
(iv) –  (b) Given in the fifth paragraph of the passage


Question 13

CASE

The movement to expel the Austrians from Italy and unite Italy under a republican government had been gaining momentum while Garibaldi was away. There was a growing clamour, not just from Giuseppe Mazzini's republicans, but from moderates as well, for a General capable of leading Italy to independence. Even the King of Piedmont, for whom Garibaldi was still an outlaw under sentence of death, subscribed to an appeal for a sword for the returning hero. Meanwhile, the 'year of revolutions', 1848, had occurred in which Louis Philippe had been toppled from the French throne. In Austria, an uprising triggered off insurrections in Venice and Milan, and the Austrian garrisons were forced out. The King of Piedmont, Charles Albert ordered his troops to occupy these cities. There had also been insurrections in Sicily, causing the King Ferdinand II, to grant major constitutional freedoms in 1849, prompting both the Pope and Charles Albert to grant further concessions.

Meanwhile, largely ignorant of these developments, Garibaldi was approaching Italy at a leisurely pace, arriving at Nice on 23 June 1848 to a tumultuous reception. The hero declared himself willing to fight and lay down his life for Charles Albert, who he now regarded as a bastion of Italian nationalism.

Mazzini and the republicans were horrified, regarding this as outright betrayal: did it reflect Garibaldi's innate simple-mindedness, his patriotism in the war against Austria, or was it part of a deal with the monarchy? Charles Albert had pardoned Garibaldi, but to outward appearances he was still very wary of the General and the Italian Legion he had amassed of 150 'brigands'. The two men met near Mantua, and the King appeared to dislike him instantly. He suggested that Garibaldi's men should join his army and that Garibaldi should go to Venice and captain a ship as a privateer against the Austrians.

Garibaldi, meanwhile, met his former hero Mazzini for the first time, and again the encounter was frosty. Seemingly rebuffed on all sides, Garibaldi considered going to Sicily to fight King Ferdinand II of Naples, but changed his mind when the Milanese offered him the post of General – something they badly needed when Charles Albert's Piedmontese army was defeated at Custoza by the Austrians. With around 1,000 men, Garibaldi marched into the mountains at Varese, commenting bitterly: 'The King of Sardinia may have a crown that he holds on to by dint of misdeeds and cowardice, but my comrades and I do not wish to hold on to our lives by shameful actions'.

The King of Piedmont offered an armistice to the Austrians and all the gains in northern Italy were lost again. Garibaldi returned to Nice and then across to Genoa, where he learned that, in September 1848, Ferdinand II had bombed Messina as a prelude to invasion – an atrocity which caused him to be dubbed 'King Bomba'. Reaching Livorno he was diverted yet again and set off across the Italian peninsula with 350 men to come to Venice's assistance, but on the way, in Bologna, he learned that the Pope had taken refuge with King Bomba. Garibaldi promptly altered course southwards towards Rome where he was greeted once again as a hero. Rome proclaimed itself a Republic. Garibaldi's Legion had swollen to nearly 1,300 men, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany fled Florence before the advancing republican force.

However, the Austrians marched southwards to place the Grand Duke of Tuscany back on his throne. Prince Louis Napoleon of France despatched an army of 7,000 men under General Charles Oudinot to the port of Civitavecchia to seize the city. Garibaldi was appointed as a General to defend Rome.

The republicans had around 9,000 men, and Garibaldi was given control of more than 4,000 to defend the Janiculum Hill, which was crucial to the defence of Rome, as it commanded the city over the Tiber. Some 5,000 well-equipped French troops arrived on 30 April 1849 at Porta Cavallegeri in the old walls of Rome, but failed to get through, and were attacked from behind by Garibaldi, who led a baton charge and was grazed by a bullet slightly on his side. The French lost 500 dead and wounded, along with some 350 prisoners, to the Italians, 200 dead and wounded. It was a famous victory, wildly celebrated by the Romans into the night, and the French signed a tactical truce.

However, other armies were on the march: Bomba's 12,500-strong Neapolitan army was approaching from the south, while the Austrians had attacked Bologna in the north. Garibaldi took a force out of Rome and engaged in a flanking movement across the Neapolitan army's rear at Castelli Romani; the Neapolitans attacked and were driven off, leaving 50 dead. Garibaldi accompanied the Roman General, Piero Roselli, in an attack on the retreating Neapolitan army. Foolishly leading a patrol of his men right out in front of his forces, he tried to stop a group of his cavalry retreating and fell under their horses, with the enemy slashing at him with their sabres. He was rescued by his legionnaires, narrowly having avoided being killed, but Roselli had missed the chance to encircle the Neapolitan army.

Garibaldi boldly wanted to carry the fight down into the Kingdom of Naples, but Mazzini, who by now was effectively in charge of Rome, ordered him back to the capital to face the danger of Austrian attack from the north. In fact, it was the French who arrived on the outskirts of Rome first, with an army now reinforced by 30,000. Mazzini realized that Rome could not resist and ordered a symbolic stand within the city itself, rather than surrender, for the purposes of international propaganda and to keep the struggle alive, whatever the cost. On 3 June the French arrived in force and seized the strategic country house, Villa Pamphili.

Garibaldi rallied his forces and fought feverishly to retake the villa up narrow and steep city streets, capturing it, then losing it again. By the end of the day, the sides had 1,000 dead between them. Garibaldi once again had been in the thick of the fray, giving orders to his troops and fighting, it was said, like a lion. Although beaten off for the moment, the French imposed a siege in the morning, starving the city of provisions and bombarding its beautiful centre.

On 30 June the French attacked again in force, while Garibaldi, at the head of his troops, fought back ferociously. But there was no prospect of holding the French off indefinitely, and Garibaldi decided to take his men out of the city to continue resistance in the mountains. Mazzini fled to Britain while Garibaldi remained to fight for the cause. He had just 4,000 men, divided into two legions, and faced some 17,000 Austrians and Tuscans in the north, 30,000 Neapolitans and Spanish in the south, and 40,000 French in the west. He was being directly pursued by 8,000 French and was approaching Neapolitan and Spanish divisions of some 18,000 men. He stood no chance whatever. The rugged hill country was ideal, however, for his style of irregular guerrilla warfare, and he manoeuvred skilfully, marching and counter-marching in different directions, confounding his pursuers before finally aiming for Arezzo in the north. But his men were deserting in droves and local people were hostile to his army: he was soon reduced to 1500 men who struggled across the high mountain passes to San Marino where he found temporary refuge.

The Austrians, now approaching, demanded that he go into exile in America. He was determined to fight on and urged the ill and pregnant Anita, his wife, to stay behind in San Marino, but she would not hear of it. The pair set off with 200 loyal soldiers along the mountain tracks to the Adriatic coast, from where Garibaldi intended to embark for Venice which was still valiantly holding out against the Austrians. They embarked aboard 13 fishing boats and managed to sail to within 50 miles of the Venetian lagoon before being spotted by an Austrian flotilla and fired upon.

Only two of Garibaldi's boats escaped. He carried Anita through the shallows to a beach and they moved further inland. The ailing Anita was placed in a cart and they reached a farmhouse, where she died. Her husband broke down into inconsolable wailing and she was buried in a shallow grave near the farmhouse, but was transferred to a churchyard a few days later. Garibaldi had no time to lose; he and his faithful companion Leggero escaped across the Po towards Ravenna.

At last Garibaidi was persuaded to abandon his insane attempts to reach Venice by sea and to return along less guarded routes on the perilous mountain paths across the Apennines towards the western coast of Italy. He visited his family in Nice for an emotional reunion with his mother and his three children – but lacked the courage to tell them what had happened to their mother.

Question:

After his failure to reach Venice, Garibaldi left towards

  1. Arezzo, Oudinot
  1. Ravenna, Leggero
  1. Livorno, Anita
  1. Varese, Roselli

 


Solution:


Question 14

CASE

The movement to expel the Austrians from Italy and unite Italy under a republican government had been gaining momentum while Garibaldi was away. There was a growing clamour, not just from Giuseppe Mazzini's republicans, but from moderates as well, for a General capable of leading Italy to independence. Even the King of Piedmont, for whom Garibaldi was still an outlaw under sentence of death, subscribed to an appeal for a sword for the returning hero. Meanwhile, the 'year of revolutions', 1848, had occurred in which Louis Philippe had been toppled from the French throne. In Austria, an uprising triggered off insurrections in Venice and Milan, and the Austrian garrisons were forced out. The King of Piedmont, Charles Albert ordered his troops to occupy these cities. There had also been insurrections in Sicily, causing the King Ferdinand II, to grant major constitutional freedoms in 1849, prompting both the Pope and Charles Albert to grant further concessions.

Meanwhile, largely ignorant of these developments, Garibaldi was approaching Italy at a leisurely pace, arriving at Nice on 23 June 1848 to a tumultuous reception. The hero declared himself willing to fight and lay down his life for Charles Albert, who he now regarded as a bastion of Italian nationalism.

Mazzini and the republicans were horrified, regarding this as outright betrayal: did it reflect Garibaldi's innate simple-mindedness, his patriotism in the war against Austria, or was it part of a deal with the monarchy? Charles Albert had pardoned Garibaldi, but to outward appearances he was still very wary of the General and the Italian Legion he had amassed of 150 'brigands'. The two men met near Mantua, and the King appeared to dislike him instantly. He suggested that Garibaldi's men should join his army and that Garibaldi should go to Venice and captain a ship as a privateer against the Austrians.

Garibaldi, meanwhile, met his former hero Mazzini for the first time, and again the encounter was frosty. Seemingly rebuffed on all sides, Garibaldi considered going to Sicily to fight King Ferdinand II of Naples, but changed his mind when the Milanese offered him the post of General – something they badly needed when Charles Albert's Piedmontese army was defeated at Custoza by the Austrians. With around 1,000 men, Garibaldi marched into the mountains at Varese, commenting bitterly: 'The King of Sardinia may have a crown that he holds on to by dint of misdeeds and cowardice, but my comrades and I do not wish to hold on to our lives by shameful actions'.

The King of Piedmont offered an armistice to the Austrians and all the gains in northern Italy were lost again. Garibaldi returned to Nice and then across to Genoa, where he learned that, in September 1848, Ferdinand II had bombed Messina as a prelude to invasion – an atrocity which caused him to be dubbed 'King Bomba'. Reaching Livorno he was diverted yet again and set off across the Italian peninsula with 350 men to come to Venice's assistance, but on the way, in Bologna, he learned that the Pope had taken refuge with King Bomba. Garibaldi promptly altered course southwards towards Rome where he was greeted once again as a hero. Rome proclaimed itself a Republic. Garibaldi's Legion had swollen to nearly 1,300 men, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany fled Florence before the advancing republican force.

However, the Austrians marched southwards to place the Grand Duke of Tuscany back on his throne. Prince Louis Napoleon of France despatched an army of 7,000 men under General Charles Oudinot to the port of Civitavecchia to seize the city. Garibaldi was appointed as a General to defend Rome.

The republicans had around 9,000 men, and Garibaldi was given control of more than 4,000 to defend the Janiculum Hill, which was crucial to the defence of Rome, as it commanded the city over the Tiber. Some 5,000 well-equipped French troops arrived on 30 April 1849 at Porta Cavallegeri in the old walls of Rome, but failed to get through, and were attacked from behind by Garibaldi, who led a baton charge and was grazed by a bullet slightly on his side. The French lost 500 dead and wounded, along with some 350 prisoners, to the Italians, 200 dead and wounded. It was a famous victory, wildly celebrated by the Romans into the night, and the French signed a tactical truce.

However, other armies were on the march: Bomba's 12,500-strong Neapolitan army was approaching from the south, while the Austrians had attacked Bologna in the north. Garibaldi took a force out of Rome and engaged in a flanking movement across the Neapolitan army's rear at Castelli Romani; the Neapolitans attacked and were driven off, leaving 50 dead. Garibaldi accompanied the Roman General, Piero Roselli, in an attack on the retreating Neapolitan army. Foolishly leading a patrol of his men right out in front of his forces, he tried to stop a group of his cavalry retreating and fell under their horses, with the enemy slashing at him with their sabres. He was rescued by his legionnaires, narrowly having avoided being killed, but Roselli had missed the chance to encircle the Neapolitan army.

Garibaldi boldly wanted to carry the fight down into the Kingdom of Naples, but Mazzini, who by now was effectively in charge of Rome, ordered him back to the capital to face the danger of Austrian attack from the north. In fact, it was the French who arrived on the outskirts of Rome first, with an army now reinforced by 30,000. Mazzini realized that Rome could not resist and ordered a symbolic stand within the city itself, rather than surrender, for the purposes of international propaganda and to keep the struggle alive, whatever the cost. On 3 June the French arrived in force and seized the strategic country house, Villa Pamphili.

Garibaldi rallied his forces and fought feverishly to retake the villa up narrow and steep city streets, capturing it, then losing it again. By the end of the day, the sides had 1,000 dead between them. Garibaldi once again had been in the thick of the fray, giving orders to his troops and fighting, it was said, like a lion. Although beaten off for the moment, the French imposed a siege in the morning, starving the city of provisions and bombarding its beautiful centre.

On 30 June the French attacked again in force, while Garibaldi, at the head of his troops, fought back ferociously. But there was no prospect of holding the French off indefinitely, and Garibaldi decided to take his men out of the city to continue resistance in the mountains. Mazzini fled to Britain while Garibaldi remained to fight for the cause. He had just 4,000 men, divided into two legions, and faced some 17,000 Austrians and Tuscans in the north, 30,000 Neapolitans and Spanish in the south, and 40,000 French in the west. He was being directly pursued by 8,000 French and was approaching Neapolitan and Spanish divisions of some 18,000 men. He stood no chance whatever. The rugged hill country was ideal, however, for his style of irregular guerrilla warfare, and he manoeuvred skilfully, marching and counter-marching in different directions, confounding his pursuers before finally aiming for Arezzo in the north. But his men were deserting in droves and local people were hostile to his army: he was soon reduced to 1500 men who struggled across the high mountain passes to San Marino where he found temporary refuge.

The Austrians, now approaching, demanded that he go into exile in America. He was determined to fight on and urged the ill and pregnant Anita, his wife, to stay behind in San Marino, but she would not hear of it. The pair set off with 200 loyal soldiers along the mountain tracks to the Adriatic coast, from where Garibaldi intended to embark for Venice which was still valiantly holding out against the Austrians. They embarked aboard 13 fishing boats and managed to sail to within 50 miles of the Venetian lagoon before being spotted by an Austrian flotilla and fired upon.

Only two of Garibaldi's boats escaped. He carried Anita through the shallows to a beach and they moved further inland. The ailing Anita was placed in a cart and they reached a farmhouse, where she died. Her husband broke down into inconsolable wailing and she was buried in a shallow grave near the farmhouse, but was transferred to a churchyard a few days later. Garibaldi had no time to lose; he and his faithful companion Leggero escaped across the Po towards Ravenna.

At last Garibaidi was persuaded to abandon his insane attempts to reach Venice by sea and to return along less guarded routes on the perilous mountain paths across the Apennines towards the western coast of Italy. He visited his family in Nice for an emotional reunion with his mother and his three children – but lacked the courage to tell them what had happened to their mother.

Question:

Find the incorrect statement: with

  1. In 1848, when the battle for unification of Italy Was going on, the Pope had taken refuge with the King of Piedmont.
  1. When the news of Garibaldi's decision to return to Italy and fight under King Charles Albert reached the republicans, they initially suspected his ulterior motive.
  1. After the fighting at Castelli Romani, Garibaldi's intention was to fight down into the Kingdom of Naples, a decision which was not approved by Mazzini.
  1. Around the time Rome was declared a Republic, a French army under the command of General Oudinot were despatched to Civitavecchia by Prince Louis Napoleon.

 


Solution:


Question 15

CASE

Public sector banks (PSBs) are pulling back on credit disbursement to lower rated companies, as they keep a closer watch on using their own scarce capital and the banking regulator heightens its scrutiny on loans being sanctioned.

Bankers say the Reserve Bank of India has started strictly monitoring how banks are utilizing their capital. Any big-ticket loan to lower rated companies is being questioned. Almost all large public sector banks that reported their first quarter results so far have showed a contraction in credit disbursal on a year-to-date basis, as most banks have shifted to a strategy of lending largely to government-owned "Navratna" companies and highly rated private sector companies. On a sequential basis too, banks have grown their loan book at an anaemic rate.

To be sure, in the first quarter, loan demand is not quite robust. However, in the first quarter last year, banks had healthier loan growth on a sequential basis than this year. The country's largest lender State Bank of India grew its loan book at only 1.21% quarter-on-quarter. Meanwhile, Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank shrank their loan book by 1.97% and 0.66% respectively in the first quarter on a sequential basis.

Last year, State Bank of India had seen sequential loan growth of 3.37%, while Bank of Baroda had seen a smaller contraction of 0.22%. Punjab National Bank had seen a growth of 0.46% in loan book between the January-March and April-June quarters last year.

On a year-to-date basis, SBI's credit growth fell more than 2%, Bank of Baroda's credit growth contracted 4.71% and Bank of India's credit growth shrank about 3%. SBI chief Arundhati Bhattacharya said the bank's year-to-date credit growth fell as the bank focused on 'A' rated customers. About 90% of the loans in the quarter were given to high-rated companies. "Part of this was a conscious decision and part of it is because we actually did not get good fresh proposals in the quarter," Bhattacharya said.

According to bankers, while part of the credit contraction is due to the economic slowdown, capital constraints and reluctance to take on excessive risk has also played a role. "Most of the PSU banks are facing pressure on capital adequacy. It is challenging to maintain 9% core capital adequacy. The pressure on monitoring capital adequacy and maintaining capital buffer is so strict that you cannot grow aggressively," said Rupa Rege Nitsure, chief economist at Bank of Baroda.

Nitsure said capital conservation pressures will substantially cut down "irrational expansion of loans" in some smaller banks, which used to grow at a rate much higher than the industry average. The companies coming to banks, in turn, will have to make themselves more creditworthy for banks to lend. "The conservation of capital is going to inculcate a lot of discipline in both banks and borrowers," she said.

For every loan that a bank disburses, some amount of money is required to be set aside as provision. Lower the credit rating of the company, riskier the loan is perceived to be. Thus, the bank is required to set aside more capital for a lower rated company than what it otherwise would do for a higher rated client. New international accounting norms, known as Basel III norms, require banks to maintain higher capital and higher liquidity. They also require a bank to set aside "buffer" capital to meet contingencies. As per the norms, a bank's total capital adequacy ratio should be 12% at any time, in which tier-I, or the core capital, should be at 9%. Capital adequacy is calculated by dividing total capital by risk-weighted assets. If the loans have been given to lower rated companies, risk weight goes up and capital adequacy falls.

According to bankers, all loan decisions are now being assessed on the basis of the capital that needs to be set aside as provision against the loan and as a result, loans to lower rated companies are being avoided. According to a senior banker with a public sector bank, the capital adequacy situation is so precarious in some banks that if the risk weight increases a few basis points, the proposal gets cancelled. The banker did not wish to be named. One basis point is one hundredth of a percentage point. Bankers add that the Reserve Bank of India has also started strictly monitoring how banks are utilising their capital. Any big-ticket loan to lower rated companies is being questioned.

In this scenario, banks are looking for safe bets, even if it means that profitability is being compromised. "About 25% of our loans this quarter was given to Navratna companies, who pay at base rate. This resulted in contraction of our net interest margin (NIM)," said Bank of India chairperson V.R. Iyer, while discussing the bank's first quarter results with the media. Bank of India's NIM, or the difference between yields on advances and cost of deposits, a key gauge of profitability, fell in the first quarter to 2.45% from 3.07% a year ago, as the bank focuseu un lending to highly rated customers.

Analysts, however, say the strategy being followed by banks is short-sighted. "A high rated client will take loans at base rate and will not give any fee income to a bank. A bank will never be profitable that way. Besides, there are only so many PSU companies to chase. All banks cannot be chasing them all at a time. Fact is, the banks are badly hit by NPA and are afraid to lend now to big projects. They need capital, true, but they have become risk-averse," said a senior analyst with a local brokerage who did not wish to be named.

Various estimates suggest that Indian banks would require more than Rs. 2 trillion of additional capital to have this kind of capital adequacy ratio by 2019. The central government, which owns the majority share of these banks, has been cutting down on its commitment to recapitalize the banks. In 2013-14, the government infused Rs 14,000 crore in its banks. However, in 2014-15, the government will infuse just Rs 11,200 crore.

Question:

Which of the following statements is correct according to the passage?

  1. Last year banks had recorded a healthier loan growth in the first quarter over the preceding quarter, as compared to this year.
  1. Risk level of loans move in the same direction as the credit ratings of a company.
  1. Bank of Baroda shrank its loan book by less than 1% in the first quarter this year as compared to the preceding quarter.
  1. Punjab National Bank recorded a decline in its loan books by less than 1% in the first quarter this year as compared to the same quarter last year.

 


Solution:

(A) Para 3 and 4 together establish this fact where growth was higher last year and degrowth was lesser.


Question 16

CASE

Public sector banks (PSBs) are pulling back on credit disbursement to lower rated companies, as they keep a closer watch on using their own scarce capital and the banking regulator heightens its scrutiny on loans being sanctioned.

Bankers say the Reserve Bank of India has started strictly monitoring how banks are utilizing their capital. Any big-ticket loan to lower rated companies is being questioned. Almost all large public sector banks that reported their first quarter results so far have showed a contraction in credit disbursal on a year-to-date basis, as most banks have shifted to a strategy of lending largely to government-owned "Navratna" companies and highly rated private sector companies. On a sequential basis too, banks have grown their loan book at an anaemic rate.

To be sure, in the first quarter, loan demand is not quite robust. However, in the first quarter last year, banks had healthier loan growth on a sequential basis than this year. The country's largest lender State Bank of India grew its loan book at only 1.21% quarter-on-quarter. Meanwhile, Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank shrank their loan book by 1.97% and 0.66% respectively in the first quarter on a sequential basis.

Last year, State Bank of India had seen sequential loan growth of 3.37%, while Bank of Baroda had seen a smaller contraction of 0.22%. Punjab National Bank had seen a growth of 0.46% in loan book between the January-March and April-June quarters last year.

On a year-to-date basis, SBI's credit growth fell more than 2%, Bank of Baroda's credit growth contracted 4.71% and Bank of India's credit growth shrank about 3%. SBI chief Arundhati Bhattacharya said the bank's year-to-date credit growth fell as the bank focused on 'A' rated customers. About 90% of the loans in the quarter were given to high-rated companies. "Part of this was a conscious decision and part of it is because we actually did not get good fresh proposals in the quarter," Bhattacharya said.

According to bankers, while part of the credit contraction is due to the economic slowdown, capital constraints and reluctance to take on excessive risk has also played a role. "Most of the PSU banks are facing pressure on capital adequacy. It is challenging to maintain 9% core capital adequacy. The pressure on monitoring capital adequacy and maintaining capital buffer is so strict that you cannot grow aggressively," said Rupa Rege Nitsure, chief economist at Bank of Baroda.

Nitsure said capital conservation pressures will substantially cut down "irrational expansion of loans" in some smaller banks, which used to grow at a rate much higher than the industry average. The companies coming to banks, in turn, will have to make themselves more creditworthy for banks to lend. "The conservation of capital is going to inculcate a lot of discipline in both banks and borrowers," she said.

For every loan that a bank disburses, some amount of money is required to be set aside as provision. Lower the credit rating of the company, riskier the loan is perceived to be. Thus, the bank is required to set aside more capital for a lower rated company than what it otherwise would do for a higher rated client. New international accounting norms, known as Basel III norms, require banks to maintain higher capital and higher liquidity. They also require a bank to set aside "buffer" capital to meet contingencies. As per the norms, a bank's total capital adequacy ratio should be 12% at any time, in which tier-I, or the core capital, should be at 9%. Capital adequacy is calculated by dividing total capital by risk-weighted assets. If the loans have been given to lower rated companies, risk weight goes up and capital adequacy falls.

According to bankers, all loan decisions are now being assessed on the basis of the capital that needs to be set aside as provision against the loan and as a result, loans to lower rated companies are being avoided. According to a senior banker with a public sector bank, the capital adequacy situation is so precarious in some banks that if the risk weight increases a few basis points, the proposal gets cancelled. The banker did not wish to be named. One basis point is one hundredth of a percentage point. Bankers add that the Reserve Bank of India has also started strictly monitoring how banks are utilising their capital. Any big-ticket loan to lower rated companies is being questioned.

In this scenario, banks are looking for safe bets, even if it means that profitability is being compromised. "About 25% of our loans this quarter was given to Navratna companies, who pay at base rate. This resulted in contraction of our net interest margin (NIM)," said Bank of India chairperson V.R. Iyer, while discussing the bank's first quarter results with the media. Bank of India's NIM, or the difference between yields on advances and cost of deposits, a key gauge of profitability, fell in the first quarter to 2.45% from 3.07% a year ago, as the bank focuseu un lending to highly rated customers.

Analysts, however, say the strategy being followed by banks is short-sighted. "A high rated client will take loans at base rate and will not give any fee income to a bank. A bank will never be profitable that way. Besides, there are only so many PSU companies to chase. All banks cannot be chasing them all at a time. Fact is, the banks are badly hit by NPA and are afraid to lend now to big projects. They need capital, true, but they have become risk-averse," said a senior analyst with a local brokerage who did not wish to be named.

Various estimates suggest that Indian banks would require more than Rs. 2 trillion of additional capital to have this kind of capital adequacy ratio by 2019. The central government, which owns the majority share of these banks, has been cutting down on its commitment to recapitalize the banks. In 2013-14, the government infused Rs 14,000 crore in its banks. However, in 2014-15, the government will infuse just Rs 11,200 crore.

Question:

Which of the following cannot be concluded from the passage?

  1. Banks' loan books have shown a weak rate of growth in the first quarter this year.
  1. According to Basel III norms total capital adequacy ratio should be 12%.
  1. SBI received many good fresh proposals in the first quarter this year.
  1. The shrinking credit is partly caused by economic slowdown.

 


Solution:

(C) IN para 5 the chairperson of the SBI clearly mentions that SBI did not receive good fresh proposals.


Question 17

CASE

Public sector banks (PSBs) are pulling back on credit disbursement to lower rated companies, as they keep a closer watch on using their own scarce capital and the banking regulator heightens its scrutiny on loans being sanctioned.

Bankers say the Reserve Bank of India has started strictly monitoring how banks are utilizing their capital. Any big-ticket loan to lower rated companies is being questioned. Almost all large public sector banks that reported their first quarter results so far have showed a contraction in credit disbursal on a year-to-date basis, as most banks have shifted to a strategy of lending largely to government-owned "Navratna" companies and highly rated private sector companies. On a sequential basis too, banks have grown their loan book at an anaemic rate.

To be sure, in the first quarter, loan demand is not quite robust. However, in the first quarter last year, banks had healthier loan growth on a sequential basis than this year. The country's largest lender State Bank of India grew its loan book at only 1.21% quarter-on-quarter. Meanwhile, Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank shrank their loan book by 1.97% and 0.66% respectively in the first quarter on a sequential basis.

Last year, State Bank of India had seen sequential loan growth of 3.37%, while Bank of Baroda had seen a smaller contraction of 0.22%. Punjab National Bank had seen a growth of 0.46% in loan book between the January-March and April-June quarters last year.

On a year-to-date basis, SBI's credit growth fell more than 2%, Bank of Baroda's credit growth contracted 4.71% and Bank of India's credit growth shrank about 3%. SBI chief Arundhati Bhattacharya said the bank's year-to-date credit growth fell as the bank focused on 'A' rated customers. About 90% of the loans in the quarter were given to high-rated companies. "Part of this was a conscious decision and part of it is because we actually did not get good fresh proposals in the quarter," Bhattacharya said.

According to bankers, while part of the credit contraction is due to the economic slowdown, capital constraints and reluctance to take on excessive risk has also played a role. "Most of the PSU banks are facing pressure on capital adequacy. It is challenging to maintain 9% core capital adequacy. The pressure on monitoring capital adequacy and maintaining capital buffer is so strict that you cannot grow aggressively," said Rupa Rege Nitsure, chief economist at Bank of Baroda.

Nitsure said capital conservation pressures will substantially cut down "irrational expansion of loans" in some smaller banks, which used to grow at a rate much higher than the industry average. The companies coming to banks, in turn, will have to make themselves more creditworthy for banks to lend. "The conservation of capital is going to inculcate a lot of discipline in both banks and borrowers," she said.

For every loan that a bank disburses, some amount of money is required to be set aside as provision. Lower the credit rating of the company, riskier the loan is perceived to be. Thus, the bank is required to set aside more capital for a lower rated company than what it otherwise would do for a higher rated client. New international accounting norms, known as Basel III norms, require banks to maintain higher capital and higher liquidity. They also require a bank to set aside "buffer" capital to meet contingencies. As per the norms, a bank's total capital adequacy ratio should be 12% at any time, in which tier-I, or the core capital, should be at 9%. Capital adequacy is calculated by dividing total capital by risk-weighted assets. If the loans have been given to lower rated companies, risk weight goes up and capital adequacy falls.

According to bankers, all loan decisions are now being assessed on the basis of the capital that needs to be set aside as provision against the loan and as a result, loans to lower rated companies are being avoided. According to a senior banker with a public sector bank, the capital adequacy situation is so precarious in some banks that if the risk weight increases a few basis points, the proposal gets cancelled. The banker did not wish to be named. One basis point is one hundredth of a percentage point. Bankers add that the Reserve Bank of India has also started strictly monitoring how banks are utilising their capital. Any big-ticket loan to lower rated companies is being questioned.

In this scenario, banks are looking for safe bets, even if it means that profitability is being compromised. "About 25% of our loans this quarter was given to Navratna companies, who pay at base rate. This resulted in contraction of our net interest margin (NIM)," said Bank of India chairperson V.R. Iyer, while discussing the bank's first quarter results with the media. Bank of India's NIM, or the difference between yields on advances and cost of deposits, a key gauge of profitability, fell in the first quarter to 2.45% from 3.07% a year ago, as the bank focuseu un lending to highly rated customers.

Analysts, however, say the strategy being followed by banks is short-sighted. "A high rated client will take loans at base rate and will not give any fee income to a bank. A bank will never be profitable that way. Besides, there are only so many PSU companies to chase. All banks cannot be chasing them all at a time. Fact is, the banks are badly hit by NPA and are afraid to lend now to big projects. They need capital, true, but they have become risk-averse," said a senior analyst with a local brokerage who did not wish to be named.

Various estimates suggest that Indian banks would require more than Rs. 2 trillion of additional capital to have this kind of capital adequacy ratio by 2019. The central government, which owns the majority share of these banks, has been cutting down on its commitment to recapitalize the banks. In 2013-14, the government infused Rs 14,000 crore in its banks. However, in 2014-15, the government will infuse just Rs 11,200 crore.

Question:

Based on the information given in the passage, which of the following is a likely outcome of lending to highly rated customers?

  1. Narrowing gap between yields on advances and cost of deposit
  1. Lower risk for the bank
  1. Easier meeting of capital adequacy norms
  1. All of the above

 


Solution:

(D) Option A is suggested in 3rd Para while option B also in first line of third para.
Paragrahh 9-10 mentions meeting Capital Adequacy norms as the prime reason to led to highly rated customers.


Question 18

CASE

Read the following sets of four sentences and arrange them in the most logical sequence to form a meaningful and coherent paragraph.

Question:

  1. Doubts linger about Facebook's ability to be a business. Financial markets had also cratered since the Microsoft deal.
  1. Big, as that is, it's considerably less than the $15 billion valuation that Microsoft and Li Ka-shing accepted in October 2007.
  1. Milner's confidence that Facebook will eventually be profitable at a gigantic scale is what emboldened him to invest initially at a price that valued the company at $10 billion.
  1. But Milner's enthusiasm is such that not only did he buy stock from Facebook, he will also be spending as much

as $300 million more buying stock from employees and outside investors.

 

  1. I, II, III, IV
  1. I, IV, II, III
  1. III, II, I, IV
  1. III, IV, II, I

 


Solution:

(C); III, II B a strong link as “Big, as that D” refer to “$10 Billion” referred in III and is compared to “$ 15 Billion” in II
I – II are strong as the “But” in IV confront “Doubts linger ……” in I


Question 19

CASE

Read the following sets of four sentences and arrange them in the most logical sequence to form a meaningful and coherent paragraph.

Question:

  1. No light, no sound comes in from the world.
  1. My violin misses him more than I do. I tune it, and we enter my soundproof cell.
  1. Electrons along copper, horsehair across acrylic create my only impressions of sense.
  1. I have not played Schubert for more than a month.

 

  1. I, II, III, IV
  1. II, III, I, IV
  1. III, I, IV, II
  1. IV, II, I, III

 


Solution:

(d); IV – II are strong link. The “him” in II refers to “Schubert” in IV.
II – I is strong link. “No light, No sound concern in” because II informs in that “we are in a sound proof all”
I – III strong link – because in the sound proof cell the violin is what makes sense.


Question 20
Question:

Which of the following words is spelled correctly?

  1. Decrepit
  1. Descrepit
  1. Deceript
  1. Decript

 


Solution:

(A); “Decrepit” is right spelling meaning worn out by long use; dilapidated, or weakened by old age; feeble.


Question 21
Question:

Which of the following options has both words spelled correctly?

  1. Recieve, Deceive
  1. Perceive, Believe
  1. Deceive, Percieve
  1. Receive, Believe

 


Solution:

(B); “Receive” is the right spelling
“Deceive” is the right spelling
“Perceive” is the right spelling
“Believe” is the right spelling
Hence, answer is (b).


Question 22
Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate option.
Question:

Mrs. Kapoor hovered around the patient in a display of great ________.

  1. Solictitude
  1. Chivalry
  1. Solicitude
  1. Chivelry

 


Solution:

(C); Spelling of (A) & (D) are wrong .
B – Chivalry means “ideal qualification of a  knight – Courteous, generous,   yalour & dexterity of arms”
‘C – solicitude means the state of being solicitude, anxiety or concern.
Thin fits in the context of somebody who is hovering around the patient.


Question 23
Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate option.
Question:

Whenever she asked the doctor how long she had left to live, he would dive off into long-winded explanations about the uncertainties inherent in medicine, and eventually tail off as if he had forgotten her original question altogether; it was the worst form of _____________ she'd ever come across.

  1. Prevarication
  1. Insinuation
  1. Preambulation
  1. Abrogation

   


Solution:

(A);
A.    “Prevarication” means the act of lying or making a deliberate misstatement or falsehood
B.    “Insinuators”  means an indirect or covert suggestion or hint especially of derogatory nature
C.    “Perambulation” means to walk through, or about or over, travel through generally in order to instead.
D.    “Abrogation” means the act of repealing or mollifying an existing order or authority.
Obviously ‘A’ fits the context of the person avoiding the answer to the duration left.


Question 24
For the underlined part of the given sentence, choose the option that is grammatically correct, effective and reduces ambiguity and redundancy.
Question:

Many of the workers currently deployed on the assembly line, hope for the exchanging of their routine jobs for new assignments that are interesting.

  1. for the exchanging of their routine jobs for new assignments that are interesting
  1. for exchanging routine jobs for new assignments that will interest them
  1. to exchange their routine jobs for new assignments that will be new and interesting
  1. to exchange their routine jobs for new and interesting assignments

 


Solution:

(D);


Question 25
For the underlined part of the given sentence, choose the option that is grammatically correct, effective and reduces ambiguity and redundancy.
Question:

Saundarya's Skin Nourishing cream sold 5 lakh packs last quarter, 20% more than their Face Wash did and nearly five times as much as their Anti-Ageing cream sales.

  1. their Face Wash did arid nearly five times as much as their Anti-Ageing cream sales
  1. their Face Wash sold and nearly five times as much as Anti-Ageing cream sales
  1. their Face Wash and nearly five times more than their Anti-Ageing cream
  1. their Face Wash did and nearly five times what Anti-Ageing cream sales were

 


Solution:

(D); The other option does not maintain parallelism with “Skin Nourishing cream sold”
“C” repeats the word “New” redundantly.


Question 26
Select the option which expresses a relationship similar to the one expressed in the capitalized pair.
Question:

MUMBLE : INDISTINCT::

  1. Swagger : Timid
  1. Exacerbate: Cure
  1. Scribble : Illegible
  1. Drizzle : Downpour

 


Solution:

(C); “Mumble” means to speak in low “Indistinct” manner so it is almost unintelligible.
Similarly “Scribble” means to write hastily, carelessly or “illegibly”
    “Swagger” is to walk in a defiant or insolent manner & is opposite to “timid”
    Also “Exacerbate” is to coarsen  & is opposite of “cure”
    “Drizzle” is a modest rain where as “downpour” is excessive.


Question 27
Select the option which expresses a relationship similar to the one expressed in the capitalized pair.
Question:

RUFFLE: EQUANIMITY::

  1. Bewilderment: Confusion
  1. Disturb: Balance
  1. Interest: Astound
  1. Flounce : Turmoil

 


Solution:

(B); “Ruffle” means to destroy the smoothness or evenness & hence “ Equanimity” of something “Equanimity” means mental or emotional composure of stability
It is exactly analogues to relationship between  
“Disturb” & “Balance” as to ruffle the equanimity is like disturbing the balance.


Question 28
The first and last parts of the sentence are marked 1 and 6. The rest of the sentence is split into five parts and marked i, ii, iii, iv and v. These five parts are not given in their proper order. From the options given, please choose the most appropriate order to form a coherent, logical and grammatically correct sentence.
Question:

  1. Having started
  1. in less time than it takes
  1. more than half of your capital
  1. with just $5.8 million
  1. you squandered
  1. in seed financing
  1. to soft-boil an egg

 

  1. 1, iii, iv, ii, v, i, 6
  1. l, iii, v, iv, i, ii, 6
  1. 1, i, v, iii, iv, ii, 6
  1. 1, iii, v, iv, ii, i, 6

 


Solution:

(B); Self explanatory. Just read the sentence in sequence of every option


Question 29
The first and last parts of the sentence are marked 1 and 6. The rest of the sentence is split into five parts and marked i, ii, iii, iv and v. These five parts are not given in their proper order. From the options given, please choose the most appropriate order to form a coherent, logical and grammatically correct sentence.
Question:

  1. You could behave badly, say you were sorry,
  1. who now had both to suffer the crime
  1. in the same position
  1. and the difficulty of forgiving
  1. you would get extra fun and be reinstated
  1. as the one who had done nothing
  1. with no goodies in addition at all

 

  1. 1, ii, v, iv, iii, i, 6
  1. 1, i, iii, ii, v, iv, 6
  1. 1, iv, v, ii, i, iii, 6
  1. 1, iv, ii, v, i, iii, 6

 


Solution:

(D); Self explanatory


Question 30
Select the option which is grammatically correct.
Question:

  1. I forgot that they are coming today.
  1. I met her more frequently than I meet you.
  1. This course is challenging and an inspiration.
  1. She is confident to speak English within six months.

 


Solution:

 (B)
A – has an error in tense. First part is in past tense and the second part in present tense. It should be “ I forgot that they were…..”
B – is correct
C – is incorrect because or error of parallel structures. It should be “challenging and inspiring”
D – Preposition error. “Confident of speaking English” and not “confident to speak English”


Question 31
Select the option which is grammatically correct.
Question:

  1. The convict escaped from prison and is believed to flee the country.
  1. Did he travel by taxi, train or by plane?
  1. Visualizing success is not the same as achieving it.
  1. I would do anything for my friend but not my neighbour.

 


Solution:

(C)
A – is incorrect because of tense error. The first part is in past tense while the second part is in present. It should be “the convict has escaped from the prison & is believed to have fleed”
B – is incorrect as there is an unnecessary “by” before the word “plane”
C – is correct
D – is incorrect because of missing preposition “for” before “my neighbor”


Question 32
Pick out the odd option.
Question:

  1. Expiate
  1. Banish
  1. Expatriate
  1. Exile

 


Solution:

(A) “Expiate” means to alone for one’s sins & is odd one out. Where as “Banish”, “Expatriate” or “Exile” all means to expel or to relegate to/from a country by decree.


Question 33
Pick out the odd option.
Question:

  1. Brevity
  1. Circumlocution
  1. Conciseness
  1. Succinctness

 


Solution:

(B); “Circumlocution” means sound about, werely, lengthy expression & hence is odd one out
as “Brevity”, “Concizeren” & “Succinctness” all refer to brief & crisp expression.


Question 34
Fill in the blanks with the word or phrase that completes the idiom correctly in the given sentences.
Question:

The bigger they come, __________ they fall, or so it is said.

  1. the greater
  1. the harder
  1. the more
  1. the less

               


Solution:


Question 35
Fill in the blanks with the word or phrase that completes the idiom correctly in the given sentences.
Question:

You almost frightened the life _____________ me.

  1. from
  1. of
  1. into
  1. out of

 


Solution:


Question 36
Question:

How many words of four or more letters can be made with the following, with the condition that at least one "E" appears in each word?

E,T,Y,T,E,L,A                                             

  1. exactly 4
  1. at least 5
  1. at most 3
  1. None of the above

 


Solution:

(B)
As soon as we can find at least 5 words that has E and are four or more letters we know the answer. The possible words could be
ELATE, TALE, TEET, LATE, TEAL


Question 37
Question:

How many words of four or more letters can be made with the following, with the condition that "A" appears in each word?

A,H,N,E,T,E,H

  1. at most 6
  1. exactly 5
  1. at least 8
  1. exactly 7

                


Solution:

(C)
Following eight words can be easily derived which are four or more letters and also have the alphabet E and hence the answer
ANTE, EATEN, THAN, HEAT, NEAT, HATE, TANE, TALE


LR
Question 1

The management of the national daily newspaper Tomorrow Digest decides to enhance its subscriber base through major changes in the style, layout, design and content of the paper. In order to make the content more amenable to the mindset of the growing younger population of the country, the paper decides to appoint a number of young and -promising Associate Editors. For facilitating the appointment process, several selection criteria were finalized and provided to the selection panel, which are noted in the following. It was noted that in order to get selected, the candidates are required to fulfil, in addition to I, at least three of the following conditions.

  1. The age of the candidates must not be lower than 25 years, but should not cross 30 years.
  1. The candidate has secured 60 percent and above at her / his Graduation level.
  1. The candidate has obtained a Post Graduate Diploma in journalism with at least 55 percent marks.
  1. The candidate has gained working experience of a minimum period of 2 years in a daily newspaper with responsibility of regular writing assignments.
  1. The candidate has been awarded at state-level for her / his articles published in state- level English daily.

If, however, it is observed that some candidates fulfil only two conditions from II-V, but does not fulfil:

  1. V above, but he /she has already gathered an experience of 5 years in a news agency, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Managing Editor of Tomorrow Digest.
  1. II above, but he /she holds a Post Graduate Diploma in journalism with 80 percent marks, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Chairman of Tomorrow Digest.
  1. III above, but he /she has completed Graduation with 70 percent marks, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Editor of Tomorrow Digest.

All the information about a few candidates applying for the Associate Editor position provided in the following are dated on August 31, 2014. Based on the information furnished, decide in each case, which of the following course of action the selection panel should adopt, from the available options. You are not to assume any information.

 

Question:

Sarangsh Malhotra has graduated from Agra University with 66 percent marks and later has completed PG Diploma in Journalism from Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi with 71 percent. After completion of the PG Diploma programme, she joined Galaxy News at Jaipur on Christmas Eve in 2006. She received an award from the hands of the Governor of Rajasthan for her series of investigative articles on January 26, 2008, a day which coincided with her twenty-fifth birthday. During June next year, she joined in a corporate house and is working there since then.

  1. The candidate is to be selected
  1. The candidate is not to be selected
  1. The case of the candidate is to be referred to the Managing Editor
  1. The case of the candidate is to be referred to the Chairman

 


Solution:

(b);His age is exceeding 30 years as on date. Hence, the candidate must not be selected.


Question 2

The management of the national daily newspaper Tomorrow Digest decides to enhance its subscriber base through major changes in the style, layout, design and content of the paper. In order to make the content more amenable to the mindset of the growing younger population of the country, the paper decides to appoint a number of young and -promising Associate Editors. For facilitating the appointment process, several selection criteria were finalized and provided to the selection panel, which are noted in the following. It was noted that in order to get selected, the candidates are required to fulfil, in addition to I, at least three of the following conditions.

  1. The age of the candidates must not be lower than 25 years, but should not cross 30 years.
  1. The candidate has secured 60 percent and above at her / his Graduation level.
  1. The candidate has obtained a Post Graduate Diploma in journalism with at least 55 percent marks.
  1. The candidate has gained working experience of a minimum period of 2 years in a daily newspaper with responsibility of regular writing assignments.
  1. The candidate has been awarded at state-level for her / his articles published in state- level English daily.

If, however, it is observed that some candidates fulfil only two conditions from II-V, but does not fulfil:

  1. V above, but he /she has already gathered an experience of 5 years in a news agency, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Managing Editor of Tomorrow Digest.
  1. II above, but he /she holds a Post Graduate Diploma in journalism with 80 percent marks, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Chairman of Tomorrow Digest.
  1. III above, but he /she has completed Graduation with 70 percent marks, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Editor of Tomorrow Digest.

All the information about a few candidates applying for the Associate Editor position provided in the following are dated on August 31, 2014. Based on the information furnished, decide in each case, which of the following course of action the selection panel should adopt, from the available options. You are not to assume any information.

 

Question:

Nalin Saxena graduated in Sociology Honours from Bangalore University with 61 percent marks, after which he joined an NGO for social work. After two years, he took migration 'and joined   Mumbai   University  for  the   PG  Diploma  in  Journalism Programme,  and  he  secured  59  percent  in the exam.  He  subsequently joined Ahmadabdd Weekly magazine, which is published in English, in July 18, 201 1, to write regular features on city life. He was born in June 1986, in the midst of the FIFA World Cup.

  1. The candidate is to be selected
  1. The candidate is not to be selected
  1. The case of the candidate is to be referred to the Chairman
  1. The case of the candidate is to be referred to the Editor

 


Solution:

(b):As the candidate has not worked with a daily newspaper, he doesn’t fulfill criteria IV. So he fulfils only critical II & III & hence is not to be selected.


Question 3

The management of the national daily newspaper Tomorrow Digest decides to enhance its subscriber base through major changes in the style, layout, design and content of the paper. In order to make the content more amenable to the mindset of the growing younger population of the country, the paper decides to appoint a number of young and -promising Associate Editors. For facilitating the appointment process, several selection criteria were finalized and provided to the selection panel, which are noted in the following. It was noted that in order to get selected, the candidates are required to fulfil, in addition to I, at least three of the following conditions.

  1. The age of the candidates must not be lower than 25 years, but should not cross 30 years.
  1. The candidate has secured 60 percent and above at her / his Graduation level.
  1. The candidate has obtained a Post Graduate Diploma in journalism with at least 55 percent marks.
  1. The candidate has gained working experience of a minimum period of 2 years in a daily newspaper with responsibility of regular writing assignments.
  1. The candidate has been awarded at state-level for her / his articles published in state- level English daily.

If, however, it is observed that some candidates fulfil only two conditions from II-V, but does not fulfil:

  1. V above, but he /she has already gathered an experience of 5 years in a news agency, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Managing Editor of Tomorrow Digest.
  1. II above, but he /she holds a Post Graduate Diploma in journalism with 80 percent marks, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Chairman of Tomorrow Digest.
  1. III above, but he /she has completed Graduation with 70 percent marks, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Editor of Tomorrow Digest.

All the information about a few candidates applying for the Associate Editor position provided in the following are dated on August 31, 2014. Based on the information furnished, decide in each case, which of the following course of action the selection panel should adopt, from the available options. You are not to assume any information.

 

Question:

Geetika Arora is working as a reporter on issues pertaining to international news events in the Indore-based English news daily The New Dawn since September 20, 2012. She was awarded by the Madhya Pradesh Newspapers Guild in 2013 for her series of articles on global climate change concerns. Geetika had graduated in Political Science from Udaipur University in 2010 with 58 percent marks. After graduation, she immediately joined Allahabad University and earned her Gold Medal in PG Diploma in Journalism by securing 82 percent marks two years later. While studying at Allahabad, she celebrated her twenty-fourth birthday.

  1. The candidate is to be selected
  1. The candidate is not to be selected
  1. The case of the candidate is to be referred to the Chairman
  1. The case of the candidate is to be referred to the Editor

 


Solution:

(c); The candidate fulfils two criteria from II to V except II, but has PG diploma with 82%. Hence, his case should be referred to the Chairman.


Question 4

The management of the national daily newspaper Tomorrow Digest decides to enhance its subscriber base through major changes in the style, layout, design and content of the paper. In order to make the content more amenable to the mindset of the growing younger population of the country, the paper decides to appoint a number of young and -promising Associate Editors. For facilitating the appointment process, several selection criteria were finalized and provided to the selection panel, which are noted in the following. It was noted that in order to get selected, the candidates are required to fulfil, in addition to I, at least three of the following conditions.

  1. The age of the candidates must not be lower than 25 years, but should not cross 30 years.
  1. The candidate has secured 60 percent and above at her / his Graduation level.
  1. The candidate has obtained a Post Graduate Diploma in journalism with at least 55 percent marks.
  1. The candidate has gained working experience of a minimum period of 2 years in a daily newspaper with responsibility of regular writing assignments.
  1. The candidate has been awarded at state-level for her / his articles published in state- level English daily.

If, however, it is observed that some candidates fulfil only two conditions from II-V, but does not fulfil:

  1. V above, but he /she has already gathered an experience of 5 years in a news agency, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Managing Editor of Tomorrow Digest.
  1. II above, but he /she holds a Post Graduate Diploma in journalism with 80 percent marks, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Chairman of Tomorrow Digest.
  1. III above, but he /she has completed Graduation with 70 percent marks, the case of the candidate will be referred to the Editor of Tomorrow Digest.

All the information about a few candidates applying for the Associate Editor position provided in the following are dated on August 31, 2014. Based on the information furnished, decide in each case, which of the following course of action the selection panel should adopt, from the available options. You are not to assume any information.

 

Question:

Manjeet Tyagi was born on September 5, 1988 and completed his graduation in Economics from Garwal University with 68 percent marks in 2009. He subsequently completed his PG Diploma in Journalism from Punjab University in July 2010, but his marks  dropped by ten percentage points vis-a-vis his graduation results. After completing PG degree, Manjeet immediately joined in a data analytics firm and worked there for one and half years as business analyst, after which he joined the Delhi-based English daily Financial Standard as a trade and industry expert for writing regular columns on these areas.

  1. The candidate is to be selected
  1. The candidate is not to be selected
  1. The case of the candidate is to be referred to the Managing Editor
  1. The case of the candidate is to be referred to the Editor

 


Solution:

(b)No information has been given about the candidate’s associations period with daily financial standard, he is not to be selected.


Question 5
Question:

Complete the series:

EPFS, GPHS, IPJS, ______ , MPNS

  1. OPLS
  1. KPMS
  1. LMPS
  1. KPLS

 


Solution:

(d); EPFS, GPHS, IPJS, _____, MPNS.
Second and last letters are always P & S respectively. First and third letters progress alternatively forward in the successive words.
Hence, the missing word is KPLS.


Question 6

In an Engineering College, five students from five different cities were elected as Secretaries by the students to perform different student activities. Each student studies in a different branch of engineering. Additionally, the following information is provided:

 

  1. Abhishek does no't'stay in the Aravalli hostel where the student from Nagpur stays,
  1. The student, whose name is not Abhishek and does not study in Metallurgy, stays in Satpura hostel. He is the only student among the five to stay at Satpura hostel
  1. Hardeep neither belongs to Jodhpur, nor does he study Mechanical Engineering.
  1. The student-in-charge of Cultural activity stays in the Aravalli hostel where Civil Engineering student does not stay.
  1. Sanjoy and the student, who studies Metallurgy, both stay in the same hostel.
  1. The student who belongs to Allahabad does not stay with the student-in-charge of the Sports activity staying at Aravalli hostel.
  1. Sanjoy is not the student-in-charge of the Cultural activity.
  1. Ravi, the student-in-charge of Mess activity, stays at Satpura hostel.
  1. The student from Patna and the student, who studies Mechanical Engineering, both stay at Aravalli hostel. They are the only two among the five students to stay at this hostel.
  1. The student, who stays at Satpura hostel, studies Computer Science.
  1. Hemant, who does not belong to Kochi, studies Chemical Engineering. He is not the General Secretary of the Student Body.
  1. Sanjoy does not belong to Allahabad.
  1. The student from Kochi and the student-in-charge of Placement activity, both stay at the Vindhya hostel.

 

Question:

Which of the following statement(s) is (are) incorrect?

  1. The Chemical Engineering student and the student-in-charge of Cultural activity, both stay in the same hostel.
  1. The student-in-charge of Placement activity is studying Metallurgy.
  1. The student who belongs to Nagpur is the student-in-charge of Sports activity.
  1. Ravi belongs to Jodhpur.

 

  1. Only I
  1. Both I and II
  1. All of I, II and III
  1. None of the statements is incorrect

 


Solution:

(b); by referring the above table we can say that statements I & II are incorrect, whereas, statement IV could be true.


Question 7

In an Engineering College, five students from five different cities were elected as Secretaries by the students to perform different student activities. Each student studies in a different branch of engineering. Additionally, the following information is provided:

 

  1. Abhishek does no't'stay in the Aravalli hostel where the student from Nagpur stays,
  1. The student, whose name is not Abhishek and does not study in Metallurgy, stays in Satpura hostel. He is the only student among the five to stay at Satpura hostel
  1. Hardeep neither belongs to Jodhpur, nor does he study Mechanical Engineering.
  1. The student-in-charge of Cultural activity stays in the Aravalli hostel where Civil Engineering student does not stay.
  1. Sanjoy and the student, who studies Metallurgy, both stay in the same hostel.
  1. The student who belongs to Allahabad does not stay with the student-in-charge of the Sports activity staying at Aravalli hostel.
  1. Sanjoy is not the student-in-charge of the Cultural activity.
  1. Ravi, the student-in-charge of Mess activity, stays at Satpura hostel.
  1. The student from Patna and the student, who studies Mechanical Engineering, both stay at Aravalli hostel. They are the only two among the five students to stay at this hostel.
  1. The student, who stays at Satpura hostel, studies Computer Science.
  1. Hemant, who does not belong to Kochi, studies Chemical Engineering. He is not the General Secretary of the Student Body.
  1. Sanjoy does not belong to Allahabad.
  1. The student from Kochi and the student-in-charge of Placement activity, both stay at the Vindhya hostel.

 

Question:

Which of the following statements is correct?

  1. Sanjay and Abhishek stay at the same hostel.
  1. The General Secretary of the Student Body studies Mechanical Engineering.
  1. The student who belongs to Patna is studying Metallurgy.
  1. The student who belongs to Kochi is studying Computer Science.

 

  1. Only I
  1. Only II
  1. Only III
  1. None of the statements is correct

 


Solution:

(c); By referring the above table, only statement III is correct.


Question 8

In an Engineering College, five students from five different cities were elected as Secretaries by the students to perform different student activities. Each student studies in a different branch of engineering. Additionally, the following information is provided:

 

  1. Abhishek does no't'stay in the Aravalli hostel where the student from Nagpur stays,
  1. The student, whose name is not Abhishek and does not study in Metallurgy, stays in Satpura hostel. He is the only student among the five to stay at Satpura hostel
  1. Hardeep neither belongs to Jodhpur, nor does he study Mechanical Engineering.
  1. The student-in-charge of Cultural activity stays in the Aravalli hostel where Civil Engineering student does not stay.
  1. Sanjoy and the student, who studies Metallurgy, both stay in the same hostel.
  1. The student who belongs to Allahabad does not stay with the student-in-charge of the Sports activity staying at Aravalli hostel.
  1. Sanjoy is not the student-in-charge of the Cultural activity.
  1. Ravi, the student-in-charge of Mess activity, stays at Satpura hostel.
  1. The student from Patna and the student, who studies Mechanical Engineering, both stay at Aravalli hostel. They are the only two among the five students to stay at this hostel.
  1. The student, who stays at Satpura hostel, studies Computer Science.
  1. Hemant, who does not belong to Kochi, studies Chemical Engineering. He is not the General Secretary of the Student Body.
  1. Sanjoy does not belong to Allahabad.
  1. The student from Kochi and the student-in-charge of Placement activity, both stay at the Vindhya hostel.

 

Question:

The student who belongs to Allahabad is studying in

  1. Metallurgy
  1. Mechanical Engineering
  1. Civil Engineering
  1. None of the above

 


Solution:

(d); The student from Allahabad is from either C.S. or Chemical.
Hence, None of the above


Question 9

In an Engineering College, five students from five different cities were elected as Secretaries by the students to perform different student activities. Each student studies in a different branch of engineering. Additionally, the following information is provided:

 

  1. Abhishek does no't'stay in the Aravalli hostel where the student from Nagpur stays,
  1. The student, whose name is not Abhishek and does not study in Metallurgy, stays in Satpura hostel. He is the only student among the five to stay at Satpura hostel
  1. Hardeep neither belongs to Jodhpur, nor does he study Mechanical Engineering.
  1. The student-in-charge of Cultural activity stays in the Aravalli hostel where Civil Engineering student does not stay.
  1. Sanjoy and the student, who studies Metallurgy, both stay in the same hostel.
  1. The student who belongs to Allahabad does not stay with the student-in-charge of the Sports activity staying at Aravalli hostel.
  1. Sanjoy is not the student-in-charge of the Cultural activity.
  1. Ravi, the student-in-charge of Mess activity, stays at Satpura hostel.
  1. The student from Patna and the student, who studies Mechanical Engineering, both stay at Aravalli hostel. They are the only two among the five students to stay at this hostel.
  1. The student, who stays at Satpura hostel, studies Computer Science.
  1. Hemant, who does not belong to Kochi, studies Chemical Engineering. He is not the General Secretary of the Student Body.
  1. Sanjoy does not belong to Allahabad.
  1. The student from Kochi and the student-in-charge of Placement activity, both stay at the Vindhya hostel.

 

Question:

The General Secretary of the Student Body belongs to:

  1. Patna
  1. Nagpur
  1. Kochi
  1. Jodhpur

 


Solution:

(c); The Gen. Sec. belongs to Kochi.


Question 10

CASE

Taking note of the day-long heavy queue in front of the Tarangabad Transport Department office everyday for obtaining transport permits, the City Administration comes out with a 'Single Office-Five Windows' system for facilitating the process. For simplicity, the windows are named as W1, W2, W3, W4 and W5 respectively. Office hours are from 8:00 AM to 5:30 PM, barring Saturday, when the office closes by 2.30 PM. To streamline the rush and reduce pressure on the employees, the working hours of the aforesaid windows are defined in the following manner: 

  • W1 is open between 9.30 AM and 2.30 PM on Monday and Wednesday, between 8.00 AM and 11.30 AM on Tuesday and Thursday and between 3.00 PM and 5.00 PM on Friday.
  • W2 is open between 8.30 AM and 1 1.30 AM on Wednesday and Thursday, between 8.00 AM and 10.00 AM on Friday, and between 12.30 PM and 2.30 PM on Monday and Saturday.
  • W3 is open between 10.00 AM and 12.30 PM on Wednesday and Saturday, between 10.00 AM and 12.00 Noon on Friday and between 3.30 PM to 5.30 PM on Monday and Thursday.
  • W4 is open between 11 .30 AM and 3.00 PM on Tuesday, between 12.30 PM and 3.00 PM on Thursday and Friday, between 8 AM and 10 AM on Saturday and Monday and between 3.30 PM to 5.30 PM on Wednesday.
  • W5 is open between 2.00 PM and 4.00 PM on Monday, 3.30 PM and 5.30 PM on Tuesday and Friday, between 8 AM and 10 AM on Wednesday and between 10.30 AM to 12.30 PM on Thursday.

 

Question:

On which of the following days, maximum number of windows is simultaneously open at 9.45 AM?

  1. Monday
  1. Wednesday
  1. Thursday
  1. Friday

 


Solution:

(b); At 9:45 AM, the number of windows open at

Monday – 2

Wed – 3

Thursday – 2

Friday – 1

Hence, maximum windows are open at Wednesday.


Question 11

CASE

Taking note of the day-long heavy queue in front of the Tarangabad Transport Department office everyday for obtaining transport permits, the City Administration comes out with a 'Single Office-Five Windows' system for facilitating the process. For simplicity, the windows are named as W1, W2, W3, W4 and W5 respectively. Office hours are from 8:00 AM to 5:30 PM, barring Saturday, when the office closes by 2.30 PM. To streamline the rush and reduce pressure on the employees, the working hours of the aforesaid windows are defined in the following manner: 

  • W1 is open between 9.30 AM and 2.30 PM on Monday and Wednesday, between 8.00 AM and 11.30 AM on Tuesday and Thursday and between 3.00 PM and 5.00 PM on Friday.
  • W2 is open between 8.30 AM and 1 1.30 AM on Wednesday and Thursday, between 8.00 AM and 10.00 AM on Friday, and between 12.30 PM and 2.30 PM on Monday and Saturday.
  • W3 is open between 10.00 AM and 12.30 PM on Wednesday and Saturday, between 10.00 AM and 12.00 Noon on Friday and between 3.30 PM to 5.30 PM on Monday and Thursday.
  • W4 is open between 11 .30 AM and 3.00 PM on Tuesday, between 12.30 PM and 3.00 PM on Thursday and Friday, between 8 AM and 10 AM on Saturday and Monday and between 3.30 PM to 5.30 PM on Wednesday.
  • W5 is open between 2.00 PM and 4.00 PM on Monday, 3.30 PM and 5.30 PM on Tuesday and Friday, between 8 AM and 10 AM on Wednesday and between 10.30 AM to 12.30 PM on Thursday.

 

Question:

On which of the following days, not more than one window is open simultaneously at any given time during office hours?

  1. Monday
  1. Wednesday
  1. Friday
  1. Saturday

 


Solution:

(d); Only on Saturday, at any given time only one window is open.


Question 12

CASE

Taking note of the day-long heavy queue in front of the Tarangabad Transport Department office everyday for obtaining transport permits, the City Administration comes out with a 'Single Office-Five Windows' system for facilitating the process. For simplicity, the windows are named as W1, W2, W3, W4 and W5 respectively. Office hours are from 8:00 AM to 5:30 PM, barring Saturday, when the office closes by 2.30 PM. To streamline the rush and reduce pressure on the employees, the working hours of the aforesaid windows are defined in the following manner: 

  • W1 is open between 9.30 AM and 2.30 PM on Monday and Wednesday, between 8.00 AM and 11.30 AM on Tuesday and Thursday and between 3.00 PM and 5.00 PM on Friday.
  • W2 is open between 8.30 AM and 1 1.30 AM on Wednesday and Thursday, between 8.00 AM and 10.00 AM on Friday, and between 12.30 PM and 2.30 PM on Monday and Saturday.
  • W3 is open between 10.00 AM and 12.30 PM on Wednesday and Saturday, between 10.00 AM and 12.00 Noon on Friday and between 3.30 PM to 5.30 PM on Monday and Thursday.
  • W4 is open between 11 .30 AM and 3.00 PM on Tuesday, between 12.30 PM and 3.00 PM on Thursday and Friday, between 8 AM and 10 AM on Saturday and Monday and between 3.30 PM to 5.30 PM on Wednesday.
  • W5 is open between 2.00 PM and 4.00 PM on Monday, 3.30 PM and 5.30 PM on Tuesday and Friday, between 8 AM and 10 AM on Wednesday and between 10.30 AM to 12.30 PM on Thursday.

 

Question:

AH windows of the transport permit office are closed for 1 hour during the office hours on which of the following days?

  1. Wednesday
  1. Monday
  1. Tuesday
  1. Thursday

 


Solution:

(a); On Wednesday, all windows are closed for 1 hr, i.e., from 2:30 pm to 3:30 pm.


Question 13

CASE

Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries organized a business conclave on India's emerging electronic goods sector. CEOs and Managing Directors of four leading companies, namely, Klentech Industries, Andromeda Infotech, Zoomerng Technologies and Spearhead Unlimited were invited to deliver lectures on this occasion. The CEOs of the four companies were Mr. Sethi, Mr. D'Souza, Mr. Puri and Mr. Bisht respectively, while the Managing Directors were Mr. Tandon, Mr. Arora, Mr. Karare and Kir. Ready m that order. The speeches were delivered subject to the condition that each of the Managing Directors delivered their speeches immediately after that of the CEOs of their company.

 

Question:

The first CEO to speak was Mr. D'Souza and the next CEO to deliver his address was Mr. Puri. If Mr. Tandon is the third Managing Director to deliver his address, which of the following statements must be true?

  1. Mr. Bisht delivered his address sometime before Mr. Sethi.
  1. Mr. Reddy delivered his address sometime before Mr. Tandon.
  1. Mr. Puri delivered his address sometime before Mr. Reddy.
  1. Mr. Karare delivered his address sometime before Mr. Arora.

 


Solution:

(c);  According to the given condition in the question, the sequence becomes,

CEO – D’souza

MD – Arora

CEO – Puri

MD – Karare

CEO – Sethi

MD – Tondon

CEO – Bisht

MD – Reddy

Hence, option (c) must be true i.e., Mr. Puri delivered his speech sometime before Mr. Reddy.


Question 14

CASE

Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries organized a business conclave on India's emerging electronic goods sector. CEOs and Managing Directors of four leading companies, namely, Klentech Industries, Andromeda Infotech, Zoomerng Technologies and Spearhead Unlimited were invited to deliver lectures on this occasion. The CEOs of the four companies were Mr. Sethi, Mr. D'Souza, Mr. Puri and Mr. Bisht respectively, while the Managing Directors were Mr. Tandon, Mr. Arora, Mr. Karare and Kir. Ready m that order. The speeches were delivered subject to the condition that each of the Managing Directors delivered their speeches immediately after that of the CEOs of their company.

 

Question:

If Mr. Bisht was the second CEO to speak after Mr. D'Souza, and two more Managing Directors speak after the address of the Managing Director of Spearhead Unlimited, then who is the last CEO to speak?

  1. Mr. Sethi
  1. Mr. Puri
  1. Mr. Tandon
  1. Cannot be determined.

 


Solution:

(d); The sequence according to the condition is,

CEO – D’souza

MD – Arora

CEO – Bisht

MD – Reddy

CEO –

MD –

CEO –

MD –

The last CEO to speak can not be determined, as it could be any of the remaining two.


Question 15
In the question below, a statement is followed by three assumptions numbered I, II and III. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which assumptions are implicit in the statement.
Question:

It is believed by many economists that to realize a 7 percent GDP growth rate in India, which is very much attainable, the gross fixed capital formation in the country must increase to'30 percent of GDP from the present level of 28 percent.

  1. The target of 7 percent GDP growth is not feasible.
  1. GDP growth rate is directly related to capital formation rate.
  1. The GDP growth rate in a country is the only indicator of country's economic development.

 

  1. Both I and II
  1. Both II and III
  1. Both III and I
  1. None of A, B or C

 


Solution:

(d); Assumption I. is not implicit because it says 7%. GDP growth is not feasible, whereas in the given statement the speaker says it is very much attainable.

Assumption II. is not a necessary assumption, because if we don’t take it to be true, even then we are able to make the given statement.

Assumption III. is irrelevant as it mentions economic development, which is not talked of in the given statement.

Hence, none of A, B, or C.


Question 16
The statement below is followed by three outcomes numbered I, II and III. An outcome is either a step of administrative decision to be undertaken for improvement, or a follow-up for further action, or natural response by stakeholders, etc. on the basis of the information provided in the statement. Everything mentioned in the statement is to be assumed to be true, on the basis of which the most logically followed course of action has to be decided.
Question:

Statement: The city council of Brownwood City has decided to install a plant of mineral water to provide the citizens mineral water bottles at US $ 1 per bottle as against bottles costing US $ 1.5 being sold by local private players.

  1. All the local private companies selling bottled water in Brownwood City will have to close their operations.
  1. The city council of Brownwood City will have to provide for the losses from this project in its budget.
  1. The normal tap water supply of Brownwood City will have no takers and that will have to be discontinued.

 

  1. None of I, II or III
  1. Only II
  1. Both II and III
  1. All I, II and III

 


Solution:

(a); Outcome I. does not follow logically. It says local private companies selling bottled water will have to close  their operations. This cant be deduced from the given case.

Outcome II. does not follow, as there is no information about reimbursement of losses.

Outcome III. does not follow, as nothing is mentioned regarding normal cap water supply.

Hence, none of I, II, or III.


Question 17

CASE

A word arrangement machine, when given a particular input, rearranges it following a particular rule upto step 4. The following is the illustration of the input and the steps of the arrangement. Study the inherent logic and the answer the following question.

 

Input

be

the

change

you

with

to

see

in

this

world

Step 1

the

be

you

change

to

wish

in

see

world

this

Step 2

you

be

the

change

to

world

in

see

with

this

Step 3

you

see

the

this

to

world

in

be

with

change

Step 4

see

you

this

the

world

to

be

in

change

wish

 

Question:

If the input is, 'don't cry because it's over smile since it actually happened', then Step 4 will be:

  1. it's since actually happened cry smile don't it over because
  1. since cry it's happened actually smile it don't because over
  1. since it's actually cry happened smile don't it because over
  1. since it's cry actually happened don't smile it over because/"

 


Solution:

(c); Applying the above logic to this input, we get step IV, as ‘since its’ actually cry happened smile don’t it because over’.

Hence, option (c).


Question 18

CASE

A word arrangement machine, when given a particular input, rearranges it following a particular rule upto step 4. The following is the illustration of the input and the steps of the arrangement. Study the inherent logic and the answer the following question.

 

Input

be

the

change

you

with

to

see

in

this

world

Step 1

the

be

you

change

to

wish

in

see

world

this

Step 2

you

be

the

change

to

world

in

see

with

this

Step 3

you

see

the

this

to

world

in

be

with

change

Step 4

see

you

this

the

world

to

be

in

change

wish

 

Question:

If Step 4 generates, 'dog sea school star ice moon flower home rock ball', then the input was:

  1. flower star rock sea ball moon(4og home school ice x
  1. rock flower sea ball dog star moon school home ice
  1. flower ball star sea rock dog moon ice home school
  1. star moon rock sea home flower ice ball dog school

 


Solution:

81. (a); Applying the above logic backwards, we get input as ‘ flower star rock sea ball moon dog home school ice;
Hence, option (a).


Question 19
In each question given below, there are three statements followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and IV. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the conclusion(s) logically follows from the given statements.
Question:

Statement

:

  1. All tigers are lions.
  2. All lions are horses.
  3. No horses are monkeys.

Conclusions: 

:

  1. All tigers are horses.
  2. No tigers are monkeys.
  3. Some lions are tigers.
  4. Some monkeys are not tigers

                                          

  1. All follow
  1. Only I, II and III follow
  1. Only I, II and IV follow
  1. Only II, III and IV follow

 


Solution:

(a); By a, b, c, we get.

  1. Are tigers are horses will always be true. \ It  is a conclusion.
  2. No tigers are monkeys is always true. \ It is also a conclusion.
  3. Some lions are tigers is always true. \ It is conclusion.
  4. Some monkey are not tigers is always true. \ It is conclusion.

Question 20
In each question given below, there are three statements followed by four conclusions numbered I, II, III and IV. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the conclusion(s) logically follows from the given statements.
Question:

Statement

:

  1. Some shirts are pants.
  2. All shoes are shirts.
  3. All pants are gloves.

Conclusions: 

:

  1. Some shoes are gloves.
  2. Some shirts are gloves.
  3. No pants are shoes.
  4. All gloves are shirts.

 

  1. Only II follows
  1. Both I and III follow
  1. Only HI follows
  1. Only I and IV follow

 


Solution:

(a); By a, b, c,

From I, II, III & IV only conclusion II i.e., some shirts are gloves will always be true, hence it is the only conclusion.


DI
Question 1

CASE

BHUBANESWAR, CHENNAI, KANYAKUMARI, KOCHI, MUMBAI and VIZAG are 6 major Indian cities. For some reason people use only a certain mode of transport between a pair of cities. The modes of transport are provided in Table 1, while in Table 2 the distances between different pairs of cities are given. Table 3 provides the speed of the mode of transport and the cost associated with each of them.

Table. 1: Mode of Transport between Cities

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

-

Ship

Train

Airplane

Bus

Train

CHENNAI

Ship

-

Train

Ship

Ship

Train

KANYAKUMARI

Train

Train

-

Train

Bus

Ship

KOCHI

Airplane

Ship

Train

-

Train

Airplane

MUMBAI

Bus

Ship

Bus

Train

-

Airplane

VIZAG

Train

Train

Ship

Airplane

Airplane

-

 

Table 2: Distance between Cities (KM)

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

 

950

700

798

701

1002

CHENNAI

950

 

999

901

1000

300

KANYAKUMARI

700

999

 

1100

950

250

KOCHI

798

901

1100

 

300

600

MUMBAI

701

1000

950

300

 

500

VIZAG

1002

300

250

600

500

 

 

Table 3: Mode of Transport and Cost

Mode of Transport

KMPH

Cost per KM (in rupees)

Airplane

60

5

Bus

40

2

Ship

30

1.5

Train

25

2.5

 

Question:

For which of the following options, travel time is the least?

  1. MUMBAI-KANYAKUMARI
  1. BHUBANESWAR-CHENNAI
  1. CHENNAI-KOCHI
  1. MUMBAI-CHENNAI

 


Solution:

(a);

From

To

Mode

Distance

Speed

Time

Mumbai

Kanyakumari

Bus

950

40

23.75

Bhub.

Chennai

Ship

950

30

31.66

Chennai

Kochi

Ship

901

30

30.03

Mumbai

Chennai

Ship

1000

30

33.33

Minimum time required is in case option (a).


Question 2

CASE

BHUBANESWAR, CHENNAI, KANYAKUMARI, KOCHI, MUMBAI and VIZAG are 6 major Indian cities. For some reason people use only a certain mode of transport between a pair of cities. The modes of transport are provided in Table 1, while in Table 2 the distances between different pairs of cities are given. Table 3 provides the speed of the mode of transport and the cost associated with each of them.

Table. 1: Mode of Transport between Cities

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

-

Ship

Train

Airplane

Bus

Train

CHENNAI

Ship

-

Train

Ship

Ship

Train

KANYAKUMARI

Train

Train

-

Train

Bus

Ship

KOCHI

Airplane

Ship

Train

-

Train

Airplane

MUMBAI

Bus

Ship

Bus

Train

-

Airplane

VIZAG

Train

Train

Ship

Airplane

Airplane

-

 

Table 2: Distance between Cities (KM)

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

 

950

700

798

701

1002

CHENNAI

950

 

999

901

1000

300

KANYAKUMARI

700

999

 

1100

950

250

KOCHI

798

901

1100

 

300

600

MUMBAI

701

1000

950

300

 

500

VIZAG

1002

300

250

600

500

 

 

Table 3: Mode of Transport and Cost

Mode of Transport

KMPH

Cost per KM (in rupees)

Airplane

60

5

Bus

40

2

Ship

30

1.5

Train

25

2.5

 

Question:

Mr. Ranjith lives in MUMBAI and wants to travel to KOCHI. However, the train services are on halt due to laying of track for bullet trains across the country. In this scenario, which of the following is the least cost route to reach KOCHI?

  1. MUMBAI-BHUBANESWAR-KOCHI
  1. MUMBAI-CHENNAI-KOCHI
  1. MUMBAI-KANYAKUMARI-KOCHI
  1. MUMBAI -VIZAG- KOCHI

 


Solution:

(b);

Option 1 : Mumbai to  BHUB. By Bus and Bhub. to Kochi by Airplane

701 x 2 + 798 x 5 = 1402 + 3990=5392;  Total cost = 5392

Option 2 : Mumbai to Chennai and Chennai to Kochi by Ship

1000 x 1.5 + 901 x 1.5 = 1500 + 1351.5 = 2851.5; Total cost = 2851.5

Option : 3 Mumbai  to Knyak by Bus and Kanyak. To Kochi by Train

Option 4 : Mumbai to  Vizag by airplane and Vizag to Kochi by Airplane

500 x 5 + 600 x 5 = 2500 + 3000 = Rs. 5500; Total Cost = 5500

\ Least cost is for option 2.

 


Question 3

CASE

BHUBANESWAR, CHENNAI, KANYAKUMARI, KOCHI, MUMBAI and VIZAG are 6 major Indian cities. For some reason people use only a certain mode of transport between a pair of cities. The modes of transport are provided in Table 1, while in Table 2 the distances between different pairs of cities are given. Table 3 provides the speed of the mode of transport and the cost associated with each of them.

Table. 1: Mode of Transport between Cities

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

-

Ship

Train

Airplane

Bus

Train

CHENNAI

Ship

-

Train

Ship

Ship

Train

KANYAKUMARI

Train

Train

-

Train

Bus

Ship

KOCHI

Airplane

Ship

Train

-

Train

Airplane

MUMBAI

Bus

Ship

Bus

Train

-

Airplane

VIZAG

Train

Train

Ship

Airplane

Airplane

-

 

Table 2: Distance between Cities (KM)

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

 

950

700

798

701

1002

CHENNAI

950

 

999

901

1000

300

KANYAKUMARI

700

999

 

1100

950

250

KOCHI

798

901

1100

 

300

600

MUMBAI

701

1000

950

300

 

500

VIZAG

1002

300

250

600

500

 

 

Table 3: Mode of Transport and Cost

Mode of Transport

KMPH

Cost per KM (in rupees)

Airplane

60

5

Bus

40

2

Ship

30

1.5

Train

25

2.5

 

Question:

A school in Chennai is planning for an excursion tour for its students. They want to show them KANYAKUMARI, VIZAG, and BHUBANESWAR, not necessarily in the same order. What is the minimum travel cost (in Rs.) the school should charge from each of the student for the entire tour?

  1. Rs.4300
  1. Rs. 5000
  1. Rs. 7500
  1. Rs. 6800

 


Solution:

(a);

The minimum cost will be for the route :

Chennai ® Vizag ® Kanyakumari ® Bhubneshwar ®Chennai

Total Cost is 300 ´ 2.5 + 250 ´ 1.5 + 700 ´ 2.5 + 950 ´ 1.5

= 4350


Question 4

CASE

BHUBANESWAR, CHENNAI, KANYAKUMARI, KOCHI, MUMBAI and VIZAG are 6 major Indian cities. For some reason people use only a certain mode of transport between a pair of cities. The modes of transport are provided in Table 1, while in Table 2 the distances between different pairs of cities are given. Table 3 provides the speed of the mode of transport and the cost associated with each of them.

Table. 1: Mode of Transport between Cities

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

-

Ship

Train

Airplane

Bus

Train

CHENNAI

Ship

-

Train

Ship

Ship

Train

KANYAKUMARI

Train

Train

-

Train

Bus

Ship

KOCHI

Airplane

Ship

Train

-

Train

Airplane

MUMBAI

Bus

Ship

Bus

Train

-

Airplane

VIZAG

Train

Train

Ship

Airplane

Airplane

-

 

Table 2: Distance between Cities (KM)

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

 

950

700

798

701

1002

CHENNAI

950

 

999

901

1000

300

KANYAKUMARI

700

999

 

1100

950

250

KOCHI

798

901

1100

 

300

600

MUMBAI

701

1000

950

300

 

500

VIZAG

1002

300

250

600

500

 

 

Table 3: Mode of Transport and Cost

Mode of Transport

KMPH

Cost per KM (in rupees)

Airplane

60

5

Bus

40

2

Ship

30

1.5

Train

25

2.5

 

Question:

Which of the following cities can be reached from BHUBANESWAR in least time?

  1. CHENNAI
  1. KANYAKUMARI
  1. MUMBAI
  1. VIZAG

 


Solution:

(c);

From

To

Mode

Distance

Speed

Time

BHUB.

Chennai

Ship

950

30

31.66

BHUB.

Kanyak.

Train

700

25

28

BHUB.

Mumbai

Bus

701

40

17.525

BHUB.

Vizag

Train

1002

25

40.08

 

Least time is required to reach Mumbai.


Question 5

CASE

BHUBANESWAR, CHENNAI, KANYAKUMARI, KOCHI, MUMBAI and VIZAG are 6 major Indian cities. For some reason people use only a certain mode of transport between a pair of cities. The modes of transport are provided in Table 1, while in Table 2 the distances between different pairs of cities are given. Table 3 provides the speed of the mode of transport and the cost associated with each of them.

Table. 1: Mode of Transport between Cities

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

-

Ship

Train

Airplane

Bus

Train

CHENNAI

Ship

-

Train

Ship

Ship

Train

KANYAKUMARI

Train

Train

-

Train

Bus

Ship

KOCHI

Airplane

Ship

Train

-

Train

Airplane

MUMBAI

Bus

Ship

Bus

Train

-

Airplane

VIZAG

Train

Train

Ship

Airplane

Airplane

-

 

Table 2: Distance between Cities (KM)

 

Destination

Origin

BHUBANESWAR

CHENNAI

KANYAKUMARI

KOCHI

MUMBAI

VIZAG

BHUBANESWAR

 

950

700

798

701

1002

CHENNAI

950

 

999

901

1000

300

KANYAKUMARI

700

999

 

1100

950

250

KOCHI

798

901

1100

 

300

600

MUMBAI

701

1000

950

300

 

500

VIZAG

1002

300

250

600

500

 

 

Table 3: Mode of Transport and Cost

Mode of Transport

KMPH

Cost per KM (in rupees)

Airplane

60

5

Bus

40

2

Ship

30

1.5

Train

25

2.5

 

Question:

What is the least cost way to reach to VIZAG from KOCHI?

  1. Take a flight from KOCHI to VIZAG
  1. Take a ship from KOCHI to CHENNAI and then take a train to VIZAG
  1. Take a tram from KOCHI to KANYAKUMARI and then take a ship to VIZAG
  1. Take a train from KOCHI to MUMBAI and then take a flight to VIZAG

 


Solution:

(b);

Option A ® cost is 600 ´ 5 = 3000

Option B ® Kochi to Chennai by ship and Chennai to Vizag by Train

901 x 1.5 + 300 x 2.5 = 1351.5 + 750 = 2101.5; Total cost = 2101.5

Option C ® Kochi to Kanyak by train and Kanyak to Vizag by Ship

1100 x 2.5 + 250 x 1.5 = 2750 + 375 = 3125; Total Cost = 3125

Option D : Kochi to Mumbai by Train and Mumbai to Vizag by Flight

300 x 2.5 + 500 x 5 = 750 + 2500 = 3250; Total Cost = 3250

Clearly, the least cost is for option (b).


Question 6

CASE

Read the following information on 'Sectoral Trends in Mergers & Acquisitions in India (2001-02 to 2006-07)' given in Tables below and answer the questions.

Table 1: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers & Acquisitions'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

113

77

77

74

63

61

Textile

57

59

59

64

11

55

Chemicals

134

98

112

99

79

62

Drugs & Pharma

64

60

44

50

60

72

Cement

11

7

8

22

0

0

IT & Telecom

153

114

84

80

109

103

Diversified

15

8

13

4

7

5

Financial Services

194

201

160

116

193

177

Other Services

297

280

287

281

271

293

Misc Manufacturing

31

36

31

35

35

24

Non Metallic Mineral Products

32

24

27

27

47

34

Table 2: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

17

23

10

19

20

8

Textile

7

7

8

11

21

23

Chemicals

27

15

12

23

24

15

Drugs & Pharma

6

17

14

10

15

12

Cement

0

2

1

3

0

0

IT & Telecom

19

19

13

16

17

12

Diversified

1

0

1

0

0

0

Financial Services

91

107

87

41

75

51

Other Services

90

92

105

81

61

83

Misc Manufacturing

3

13

16

4

11

3

Non Metallic Mineral Products

3

5

1

5

8

11

 

Question:

What is the approximate proportion of 'mergers' to 'acquisitions' for the entire period (2001-02 to 2006-07)?

  1. 26%
  1. 36%
  1. 30%
  1. 20%

 


Solution:

(b);

Sectors

Total Mergers
and Acquisitions

Total Mergers

Total Acquisitions

Food & Beverage

465

97

368

Textile

371

77

294

Chemicals

584

116

468

Drugs & Pharma

350

74

276

Cement

48

6

42

IT & Telecom

643

96

547

Diversified

52

2

50

Financial Services

1041

452

589

Other Services

1709

512

1197

Misc Manufacturing

192

34

158

Non Metallic
Mineral Products

191

33

158

Total

5646

1499

4147

 

From the table, the required proportion

= 1499 x 100 / 4147 = 36%


Question 7

CASE

Read the following information on 'Sectoral Trends in Mergers & Acquisitions in India (2001-02 to 2006-07)' given in Tables below and answer the questions.

Table 1: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers & Acquisitions'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

113

77

77

74

63

61

Textile

57

59

59

64

11

55

Chemicals

134

98

112

99

79

62

Drugs & Pharma

64

60

44

50

60

72

Cement

11

7

8

22

0

0

IT & Telecom

153

114

84

80

109

103

Diversified

15

8

13

4

7

5

Financial Services

194

201

160

116

193

177

Other Services

297

280

287

281

271

293

Misc Manufacturing

31

36

31

35

35

24

Non Metallic Mineral Products

32

24

27

27

47

34

Table 2: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

17

23

10

19

20

8

Textile

7

7

8

11

21

23

Chemicals

27

15

12

23

24

15

Drugs & Pharma

6

17

14

10

15

12

Cement

0

2

1

3

0

0

IT & Telecom

19

19

13

16

17

12

Diversified

1

0

1

0

0

0

Financial Services

91

107

87

41

75

51

Other Services

90

92

105

81

61

83

Misc Manufacturing

3

13

16

4

11

3

Non Metallic Mineral Products

3

5

1

5

8

11

 

Question:

For how many sectors is the proportion of'mergers' to 'mergers & acquisitions' greater than 20% for the entire period (2001-02 to 2006-07)?

  1. 2
  1. 3
  1. 4
  1. 5

 


Solution:

(d);

Sectors

Total Mergers
and Acquisitions

Total Mergers

Merger/Total (%)

Food & Beverage

465

97

20.86021505

Textile

371

77

20.75471698

Chemicals

584

116

19.8630137

Drugs & Pharma

350

74

21.14285714

Cement

48

6

12.5

IT & Telecom

643

96

14.93001555

Diversified

52

2

3.846153846

Financial Services

1041

452

43.41978866

Other Services

1709

512

29.95904037

Misc Manufacturing

192

34

17.70833333

Non Metallic
Mineral Products

191

33

17.27748691

 

From the table, for 5 sectors, merger is greater than 20%.


Question 8

CASE

Read the following information on 'Sectoral Trends in Mergers & Acquisitions in India (2001-02 to 2006-07)' given in Tables below and answer the questions.

Table 1: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers & Acquisitions'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

113

77

77

74

63

61

Textile

57

59

59

64

11

55

Chemicals

134

98

112

99

79

62

Drugs & Pharma

64

60

44

50

60

72

Cement

11

7

8

22

0

0

IT & Telecom

153

114

84

80

109

103

Diversified

15

8

13

4

7

5

Financial Services

194

201

160

116

193

177

Other Services

297

280

287

281

271

293

Misc Manufacturing

31

36

31

35

35

24

Non Metallic Mineral Products

32

24

27

27

47

34

Table 2: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

17

23

10

19

20

8

Textile

7

7

8

11

21

23

Chemicals

27

15

12

23

24

15

Drugs & Pharma

6

17

14

10

15

12

Cement

0

2

1

3

0

0

IT & Telecom

19

19

13

16

17

12

Diversified

1

0

1

0

0

0

Financial Services

91

107

87

41

75

51

Other Services

90

92

105

81

61

83

Misc Manufacturing

3

13

16

4

11

3

Non Metallic Mineral Products

3

5

1

5

8

11

 

Question:

For how many sectors merger activity (measured by number of mergers) is more in the first 3 years as compared to the last 3 years?

  1. 7
  1. 3
  1. 6
  1. 5

 


Solution:

(d);

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

Total

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Total

Food & Beverage

17

23

10

50

19

20

8

47

Textile

7

7

8

22

11

21

23

55

Chemicals

27

15

12

54

23

24

15

62

Drugs & Pharma

6

17

14

37

10

15

12

37

Cement

0

2

1

3

3

0

0

3

IT & Telecom

19

19

13

51

16

17

12

45

Diversified

1

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

Financial Services

91

107

87

285

41

75

51

167

Other Services

90

92

105

287

81

61

83

225

Misc Manufacturing

3

13

0

16

4

11

3

18

Non Metallic
Mineral Products

3

5

1

9

5

8

11

24

 

Clearly, for 5 sectors, the value is greater.


Question 9

CASE

Read the following information on 'Sectoral Trends in Mergers & Acquisitions in India (2001-02 to 2006-07)' given in Tables below and answer the questions.

Table 1: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers & Acquisitions'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

113

77

77

74

63

61

Textile

57

59

59

64

11

55

Chemicals

134

98

112

99

79

62

Drugs & Pharma

64

60

44

50

60

72

Cement

11

7

8

22

0

0

IT & Telecom

153

114

84

80

109

103

Diversified

15

8

13

4

7

5

Financial Services

194

201

160

116

193

177

Other Services

297

280

287

281

271

293

Misc Manufacturing

31

36

31

35

35

24

Non Metallic Mineral Products

32

24

27

27

47

34

Table 2: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

17

23

10

19

20

8

Textile

7

7

8

11

21

23

Chemicals

27

15

12

23

24

15

Drugs & Pharma

6

17

14

10

15

12

Cement

0

2

1

3

0

0

IT & Telecom

19

19

13

16

17

12

Diversified

1

0

1

0

0

0

Financial Services

91

107

87

41

75

51

Other Services

90

92

105

81

61

83

Misc Manufacturing

3

13

16

4

11

3

Non Metallic Mineral Products

3

5

1

5

8

11

 

Question:

If the turbulence over a period is defined by the sum of each of the differences (in absolute terms) in number of mergers & acquisitions on a year-on-year basis, then which sector is considered most turbulent for the entire period (2001-02 to 2006-07)?

  1. Financial services
  1. IT & Telecom
  1. Food and beverage
  1. Other services

 


Solution:

(a); For Financial services, the required sum = 17 + 41 + 44 + 77 + 16 = 185

For IT & Telecom, the required sum = 39 + 30 + 4 + 29 + 6 = 108

For Food & beverage, the required sum = 36 + 0 + 3 + 11 + 2 = 52

For Other Services, the required sum = 17 + 7 + 6 + 10 + 22 = 62

The greatest value is for Financial Services.

 


Question 10

CASE

Read the following information on 'Sectoral Trends in Mergers & Acquisitions in India (2001-02 to 2006-07)' given in Tables below and answer the questions.

Table 1: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers & Acquisitions'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

113

77

77

74

63

61

Textile

57

59

59

64

11

55

Chemicals

134

98

112

99

79

62

Drugs & Pharma

64

60

44

50

60

72

Cement

11

7

8

22

0

0

IT & Telecom

153

114

84

80

109

103

Diversified

15

8

13

4

7

5

Financial Services

194

201

160

116

193

177

Other Services

297

280

287

281

271

293

Misc Manufacturing

31

36

31

35

35

24

Non Metallic Mineral Products

32

24

27

27

47

34

Table 2: Sector wise Number of 'Mergers'
 

Sectors

2001-02

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

17

23

10

19

20

8

Textile

7

7

8

11

21

23

Chemicals

27

15

12

23

24

15

Drugs & Pharma

6

17

14

10

15

12

Cement

0

2

1

3

0

0

IT & Telecom

19

19

13

16

17

12

Diversified

1

0

1

0

0

0

Financial Services

91

107

87

41

75

51

Other Services

90

92

105

81

61

83

Misc Manufacturing

3

13

16

4

11

3

Non Metallic Mineral Products

3

5

1

5

8

11

 

Question:

In which year maximum sectors have exhibited higher number of acquisitions compared to previous year?

  1. 2003-04
  1. 2004-05
  1. 2005-06
  1. 2006-07

 


Solution:

(c);

 

Acquisitions

Sectors

2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

2006-07

Food & Beverage

54

67

55

43

53

Textile

52

51

53

56

32

Chemicals

83

100

76

55

47

Drugs & Pharma

43

30

40

45

60

Cement

5

7

19

0

0

IT & Telecom

95

71

64

92

91

Diversified

8

12

4

7

5

Financial Services

94

73

75

118

126

Other Services

188

182

200

210

210

Misc Manufacturing

23

31

31

24

21

Non Metallic
Mineral Products

19

26

22

39

23

Number of Sectors

 

6

5

7

3

 

From the table, maximum sectors  are for the year 2005-06.


Question 11
Question:

What was the approximate total import of energy in 2010?

  1. 400 MTOE
  1. 300 MTOE
  1. 360 MTOE
  1. 430 MTOE

 


Solution:

(c); For 2010, consumption and import for various categories is given below.

 

Crude oil

Natural

Coal

Nuclear

Hydro

Other

Consumption

319

84

621

24

55

23

Import

160

42

155

––

2.75

––

 

Total import = 360.


Question 12
Question:

The import of natural gas in 2012, when compared to 2010, is approximately:

  1. Reduced by 10 MTOE
  1. Reduced by 13 MTOE
  1. Increased by 10 MTOE
  1. Increased by 5 MTOE

 


Solution:

(b); For natural gas,

 

2010

2012

Consumption

84

97

Import

42

29

 

Thus, import reduced by 13 MTOE.


Question 13
Question:

What is the approximate domestic production of crude oil in 2011?

  1. 220 MTOE
  1. 190 MTOE
  1. 160 MTOE
  1. 280 MTOE

 


Solution:

(b); For Crude oil,

 

2011

 

Consumption

352

 

Import

45%

 

Export

55%  =

55 x 352 / 100

 

 

» 190

 


Question 14
Question:

What is the approximate proportion of coal in the domestic consumption of energy in 2012?

  1. 52
  1. 54
  1. 58
  1. 56

 


Solution:

(d); For the year 2012,

 

Crude oil

Natural gas

Coal

Nuclear energy

Hydro

Others

Total Consumption

404

97

785

30

64

30

Domestic consumption

240

68

550

30

60

30

 

Total Domestic consumption = 980

\ % of Coal = 550 x 100 / 980

= 56%


Question 15
Question:

What is the sum of the approximate domestic production of nuclear energy and hydro electricity in 2011?

  1. 75 MTOE
  1. 80 MTOE
  1. 90 MTOE
  1. 100 MTOE

 


Solution:

(b); For the year 2011,

 

Nuclear

Hydro

Total Consumption

28

58

Domestic Consumption

28

55

 

\ Total domestic consumption = 28 + 55 = 83

The closest option is (b).


Question 16
Question:

Let pi be the circle of radius r. A square Q1 is inscribed in p1 such that all the vertices of the square Q1 lie on the circumference of p1. Another circle P2 is inscribed in Q1. Another Square Q2 is inscribed in the circle P2. Circle P3 is inscribed in the square Q2 and so on. If SN is the area between QN and PN+1, where N represents the set of natural^ numbers, then the ratio of sum of all such SN to that of the area of the square Q1 is:

  1. (4-pi)/2
  1. (2pi-4)/pi
  1. (pi-2)/2
  1. None of the above

 


Solution:

(a); Diagonal of Q1 is diameter of P1

\ Side of Q1 = rÖ2, Radius of Q2 is ½ ´ Side of Q1 = r/Ö2

Now radius of P1 = Ö2 radius of P2 = Ö2 ´ Ö2 radius of P3 = ….

and

Side of Q1 is Ö2 times that of Q2 and so on.

Therefore, area of each inner circle is half the area of its just outer circle & the same is true for squares too.

\ The required sum =

=

= 4r2 – pr2

Area Q1 = 2r2

The required ratio = (4 – pi)/2.


Question 17
Question:

In a school, students were called for the Flag Hoisting ceremony on August 15. After the ceremony, small boxes of sweets were distributed among the students. In each class, the student with roll no. 1 got one box of sweets, student with roll number 2 got 2 boxes of sweets, student with roll no. 3 got 3 boxes of sweets and so on. In class III, a total of 1200 boxes of sweets were distributed. By mistake one of the students of class III got double me sweets he was entitled to get. Identify the roll number of the student who got twice as many boxes of sweets as compared to his entitlement.

  1. 22
  1. 24
  1. 28
  1. 30

 


Solution:

(b); We know that the sum of first 48 natural numbers = 48 x 49 / 2= 1176

(which is close to and more than 1200)

Now 1200 – 1176 = 24

\ The student with roll no. 24 got double sweets.


Question 18
Question:

A boat is being rowed away in still water, from a 210 metres high cliff at the speed of 3 km/hr. What is the approximate time taken for the angle of depression of the cliff at the boat to change from 60 deg. to 45 deg?

  1. 5 min
  1. 4 min
  1. 1 min
  1. 2 min

 


Solution:

(d);

 

In D ABC, tan 45° = 210/(x + y)

Þ x + y = 210           …(1)

In D ABD, tan 60° = 210 / x

Þ x = 210/Ö3= 70Ö3

\ y = 210 – 70Ö3 = 90m

Time required to travel from D to C

= 90 / {3 x (5/18)} sec. » 2 min.

 


Question 19
Question:

X and Y are the two alloys which were made by mixing Zinc and Copper in the ratio 6:9 and 7:11 respectively. If 40 grams of alloy X and 60 grams of alloy Y are melted and mixed to form another alloy Z, what is the ratio of Zinc and Copper in the new alloy Z?

  1. 6:9
  1. 59:91
  1. 5:9
  1. 59:60

 


Solution:

  1. (b);

X

Zinc

Copper

x(40)

(6/15)x40

(9/15)x40

y(60)

(7/18)x60

(11/18)x60

Total

118/3

182/3

 

Ratio of zinc to copper = 118 : 182 = 59 : 91


Question 20
Question:

ABCDEF is a regular hexagon and PQR is an equilateral triangle of side a. The area of the shaded portion is X and CD: PQ:: 2:1. Find the area of the circle circumscribing the hexagon in terms of X.


 

  1. (16pi/23 3)X
  1. ((42pi)/5 3)X
  1. (2pi/3 3)X
  1. 2 3 pi X

 


Solution:

(a); Region X = area of hexagon – area of triangle PQR

Let side of triangle PQR be a, then the side of the hexagon will be 2a.

x = ((3\sqrt{}3)/2)x (2a)2 – (\sqrt{}3/4) x a2 …. (1)

Now radius of circle will also be 2a

area of circle = p (2a)2 ….. (2)

From (1) & (2), area of circle

=16pi/(23\sqrt{}3) x

 


Question 21
Question:

Ravindra and Rekha got married 10 years ago, their ages were in the ratio of 5:4. Today Ravindra's age is one sixth more than Rekha's age. After.marriage, they had 6 children including a triplet and twins. The age of the triplets, twins and the sixth child is in the ratio of 3:2:1. What is the largest possible value of the present total age of the family?

  1. 79
  1. 93
  1. 101
  1. 107

 


Solution:

(d); Let before 10 years, ages of Ravindra and Rekha be 5x & 4x respectively.

\therefore Their present ages will be 5x + 10 & 4x + 10.

∵ 5x + 10 = (7/6) (4x + 10)

\therefore x = 5

\therefore Their present ages are 35 & 30 and at the time of marriage, they were 25 & 20.

∵ Triplet : Twins : Sixth child

= 3 : 2 : 1

\therefore Maximum age of each triplet now can be 9.

\thereforeEach twin will be 6(2 ´3) & the sixth child will be 3 years.

\therefore Total maximum possible present age of the family is

35 + 30 + 27 + 12 + 3 = 107


Question 22
Question:

In the MBA Programme of a B-School, there are two sections A and B. l/4th of the students in Section A and 4/9th of the students in section B are girls. If two students are chosen at random, one each from section A and Section B as class representative, the probability that exactly one of the students chosen is a girl, is:

  1. 23/72
  1. 11/36
  1. 5/12
  1. 17/36

 


Solution:

(d);

 

A

B

Total

4

9

Girls

1

4

Boys

3

5

We can have a girl from Section A & a boy from Section B or a boy from Section A & a girl from Section B.
The required probability =  (1/4) x (5/9) x (3/4) x (4/9) = (17/36)


Question 23
Question:

A milk vendor sells 10 litres of milk from a can containing 40 litres of pure milk to the Is1 customer. He then adds 10 litres of water to the milk can. He again sells 10 litres of 10 litres of mixture to the 3rd customer and then adds 10 litres of water to the can and so on. What amount of pure milk will the 5th customer receive?

  1. 510/128 litres. 
  1. 505/128 litres
  1. 410/128 litres
  1. 405/128 litres

 


Solution:


Question 24
Question:

A ferry carries passengers to Rock of Vivekananda and back from Kanyakumari. The distance of Rock of Vivekananda from Kanyakumari is 100km. One day, the ferry started for Rock of Vivekananda with passengers on board, at a speed of 20 km per hour. After 90 minutes, the crew realized that there is a hole in the ferry and 15 gallons of sea water had already entere4jfae ferry. Sea water is entering the ferry at the rate of 10 gullons per hour. It requires 60 gallons of water to sink the ferry. "At what speed should the driver now drive theferry so that it can reach the Rock of Vivekananda and return back to Kanyakumari just in time before the ferry sinks? (Current of the sea water from Rock of Vivekananda to Kanyakumari is 2km per hour.)

  1. 40 km/ hr towards the Rock & 39 km/ hr while returning to Kanyakumari
  1. 41 km/ hr towards the Rock & 38 km/ hr while returning to Kanyakumari
  1. 42 km/ hr towards the Rock & 36 km/ hr while returning to Kanyakumari
  1. 35 km/ hr towards the Rock & 39 km/ hr while returning to Kanyakumari

 


Solution:

(c);

From Kanyakumari (KK) to Rock it is upstream & from Rock To KK it is down stream.

In the first 90 min (1.5 hrs) it would cover 27 kms. And 45 gallons of water remains to fill in 4.5 hrs.

Therefore to reach just in time the boat should now take 4.5 hrs to reach back to KK via the Rock.

Let the speed towards Rock be ‘a’ and towards KK be ‘b’.

Then, (73/(a-2))+(100/(b+2)) = 4.5 hrs

[Time of upstream + time of downstream = total time.]

Taking the value of a & b from option c, i.e., a = 42 k/h & b = 36 k/h the ship reaches just before sinking.

 


Question 25
Question:

The sum of is:

  1. 2/3
  1. 2/3
  1. 2/3
  1. 3/2

 


Solution:

(d);

Third term onwards the terms will become very small. Hence, the approx sum of the series would be the sum of the first two terms.

(5/6)+(13/(24×18))=0.8634

 

From the given charts, option (d) is closest to the given value i.e.,

(5/6)+(13/(24×18))=0.8634

 

From the given charts, option (d) is closest to the given value i.e., \sqrt{}3/2 = 0.866


Question 26
Question:

The value of log7 log7 is equal to:

  1. 7
  1. Log7 2
  1. 1 – 3Log2 7
  1. 1 – 3Log7 2

 


Solution:

(d); log7 log7

\sqrt{7(\sqrt{7\sqrt{7}})}

\sqrt{7(\sqrt{7.7^{1/2}})}

\sqrt{7(\sqrt{7^{3/2}})}

\sqrt{7.7^{3/4}}

\sqrt{7^{7/4}}

= 77/8

 log7 log7 77/8

= log7 7/8= log7 7 – log7 8

= 1 – log7 23 = 1 – 3 log7 2.


Question 27
Question:

ladder just reaches a window that is 8 metres high above the ground on one side of the street. Keeping one end of the ladder at the same place, the ladder is moved to the other side of the street so as to reach a 12 metre high window. If the ladder is 13 metres long, what is the width of the street?

  1. 14.6 metres.
  1. 15.8 metres.
  1. 15.2 metres.
  1. 15.5 metres.

 


Solution:

(c);

AB=\sqrt{I^{2}-12^{2}}

\sqrt{13^{2}-12^{2}}

\sqrt{169-144}

\sqrt{25}

=5

BC = \sqrt{I^{2}-8^{2}}

=\sqrt{169-64}

=\sqrt{105}

BC » 10.2

Hence, width of street = AB + BC

5 + 10.2

= 15.2 m.


Question 28
Question:

The total number of eight-digit landline telephone numbers that can be formed having at least one of their digits_repealed is:

  1. 98185600
  1. 97428800
  1. 100000000
  1. None of the above

 


Solution:

(d);

Choices of digits to fill each place out of 10 available digits.

 

9 ´ 107 total numbers. &

 

= 1632960 ways in which all digits are distinct.

Required ways = 9 ´ 107 – 1632960.

= 88367040 ways.


Question 29
Question:

The business consulting division of TCS has overseas operations in 3 locations: Singapore, New York and London. The Company has 22 analysts covering Singapore, 28 covering New York and 24 covering London. 6 analysts cover Singapore and New York but not London, 4 analysts cover Singapore and London but not New York, and 8 analysts cover New York and London but not Singapore. If TCS has a total of 42 business analysts covering at least one of the three locations: Singapore, New York and London, then the number of analysts covering New York alone is:

  1. 14
  1. 28
  1. 5
  1. 7

 


Solution:

We know that,

n(A È B È C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A Ç B) – n(B Ç C) – (A Ç C) + n(A Ç B Ç C)

42 = 22 + 28 + 24 – 18 – 3x + x

7 = x

\therefore y = 7


Question 30
Question:

Eight years after completion of your MBA7'degreeTybu start a business of your own. You invest INR 30,00,000 in the business that is expected to give you a return of 6%, compounded annually. If^he expected number of years by which your investment shall double is 72/r,~wnlre~? fWte percent interest rate, the approximate expected total value of investment (in INR) from your business 48 years later is:

  1. 2,40,00,000
  1. 3,60,00,000
  1. 4,80,00,000
  1. None of the above

 


Solution:

(c); Let the amount 30,00,000 = x

Now x doubles in every 12 years (72/6=12)

16 x = 16 ´ 30,00,000

= 480,00,000


Question 31
Question:

A right circular cylinder has a radius of 6 and a height of 24. A rectangular solid with a square base and a height of 20, is placed in the cylinder such that each of the comers of the solid is tangent to the cylinder wall. If water is then poured into the cylinder such that it reaches the rirn, the volume of water is:

  1. 288(p – 5)
  1. 288(2p – 3)
  1. 288(3p – 5)
  1. None of the above

 


Solution:

(c); Required volume = volume of cylinder – volume of solid

Volume of cylinder = pr2h

= p (6)2 (24)

= 864 p

r = 6 \ BD = 12

\ AB = 12/\sqrt{}2 =6\sqrt{}2

\ Area of square

= (6\sqrt{}2)2 = 72)

Volume of solid = area of base ´ height

= 72 ´ 20 = 1440

\ required volume = 288 (3p – 5)


Question 32
Question:

The student fest in an Engineering College is to be held in one month's time and no sponsorship has yet been arranged by the students. Finally the General Secretary (GS) of the student body took the initiative and decided to go alone for sponsorship collection. In fact, he is the only student doing the fund raising job on the first day. However, seeing his enthusiasm, other students also joined him as follows: on the second day, 2 more students join him; on the third day, 3 more students join the group of the previous day; and so on. In this manner, the sponsorship collection is completed in exactly 20 days. If an MBA student is twice as efficient as an Engineering student, the number of days which 11 MBA students would take to do the same activity, is:

  1. 70
  1. 80
  1. 90
  1. 100

 


Solution:

(a);

                                Day                                                         No. of engineers

  1. 1
  2. 3 (1 + 2)
  3. 6 (1+2+3)
  4. 10 (1+2+3+4)

And so on up to day 20 where no. of engineers will be 1+2+3+……..+20 = 210

Hence, total no. of engineers required is 1+3+6+…..+210 = 1540

As, one MBA is twice as efficient as an engineer, no. of days required by 11 MBA students = 1540/22 = 70


Question 33
Question:

A pharmaceutical company manufactures 6000 strips of prescribed diabetic drugs for Rs. 8,00,000 every month. In July 2014, the company supplied 600 strips of free medicines to doctors at various hospitals. Of the remaining medicines, it was able to sell 4/5th of the strips at 25 percent discount and the balance at the printed price of Rs. 250. Assuming vendor's discount at the rate of a uniform 30 percent of the total revenue, the approximate percentage profit / loss of the pharmaceutical company in July 2014 is:

  1. 5.5 percent (profit)
  1. 4 percent (loss)
  1. 5.5 percent (loss)
  1. None of the above

 


Solution:

  1. (c); We know that the cost of the company for 6000 strips of medicine is Rs. 8,00,000.

The sales data for, July 2014, is

Number

Selling Price

 

600

Free

= 0

4/5 (6000 – 600) = 4320

((3/4)x250)x4320

= 810000

1080

250 ´ 1080

= 270000

Total

 

= 10800000

After 30% discount

 

= 756000

 

\ There’s a loss of 44000.

% loss = (44000/800000)x100

= 5% Loss.


Question 34
Question:

A bouncing tennis ball is dropped from a height of 32 metre. The ball rebounds each time to a height equal to half the height of the previous bounce. The approximate distance travelled by the ball when it hits the ground for the eleventh time, is:

  1. 64 metre
  1. 96 metre
  1. 128 metre
  1. 150 metre

 


Solution:

(b); In the first hit, the ball drops by 32m. It rebounds to 16m and then falls by 16 m to hit the ground for the second time and so on.

Therefore, the total distance covered = 32 + 2(16+8+4+…….to 10 terms)

= 32 +

= 96 m(approx.)


Question 35
Question:

In an Engineering College in Pune, 8 males and 7 females have appeared for Student Cultural Committee selection process. 3 males and 4 females are to be selected. The total number of ways in which the Committee can be formed, given that Mr. Raj is not to be included in the Committee if Ms. Rani is selected, is

  1. 1960
  1. 2840
  1. 1540
  1. None of the Above

 


Solution:

(c); Case I: Ms Rani is selected, then Mr Raj is not selected. Number of ways = 6C3 * 7C3 = 700

Case II: Ms. Rani is not selected, number of ways = 6C4 * 8C3 = 840

Therefore, total number of ways = 700 + 840 = 1540.


Answer key
1  C 25 A 49 A 73 B 97 D
2  A 26 D 50 D 74 D 98 B
3  C 27 B 51 D 75 A 99 A
4 D 28 C 52 C 76 C 100 B
5 C 29 D 53 B 77 D 101 D
6 B 30  C 54 B 78 D 102 B
7 B 31 A 55 D 79 A 103 A
8 B 32 C 56 B 80 C 104 D
9 A 33 B 57 C 81 A 105 D
10 C 34 A 58 A 82 A 106 D
11 A 35 B 59 B 83 A 107 C
12 C 36   60 B 84 A 108 D
13 A 37   61 D 85 B 109 D
14 A 38 C 62 B 86 A 110 C
15 C 39   63 C 87 C 111 D
16 D 40   64 B 88 B 112 D
17 A 41 A 65 B 89 B 113 C
18 A 42 C 66 C 90 D 114 C
19 D 43 D 67 B 91 D 115 A
20 D 44 C 68 D 92 A 116 C
21 D 45 D 69 B 93 C 117 B
22 C 46 A 70 C 94 C 118 C
23 D 47 B 71 D 95 B    
24 B 48 C 72 C 96 B