Analysis

Dear CHEMpions

 

This year CAT being scheduled late (29th November 2015), IIFT scheduled on 22nd November 2015 is the first major MBA entrance exam before CAT. It is interesting that this test survived even when the then HRD minister was working on a policy to reduce the overall number of tests for MBA Entrance to five. In that process JMET, FMS, IRMA and many other tests were discontinued and most of them aligned to either CAT, XAT, MAT or CMAT. And yet IIFT continued. So here is a first rush view

 

Do check your performance with a detailed question by question analysis that follows on this page.

 

IIFT over the years is a pretty standard test with 0. 5 mark GA questions, 0.75 Marks English Usage and Logical Reasoning questions and the rest 1 mark questions totaling to a 100 mark paper. This year there were 124 questions across sections. An important issue here is distributing time amongst the sections for maximizing performance.

 

 

Section 1 had 22 questions of QA with 1 mark each. The section was easier as compared to previous year QA sections.

 

Section 2 – Part 1 was 18 mark section consisting of Logical Reasoning while Section 2 – Part 2 was 16 marks section consisted of Data Interpretation section. DI as always was cumbersome and full of calculations. But data was not complex.

 

Section 3 in two parts RC and EU worth 31 marks almost equally distributed.

Section 4 General Awareness was worth 14 marks. It was simple section if you have been reading the Editorial, Business and National/International pages of Newspapers regularly. Key was speed here.

So, a good distribution of time would have been

Section 1 : 30 min

Section 2 : 45 min (15 + 30)

Section 3 : 35 min (20 + 15)

Section 4 : 10 min.

 

 

The expected cutoffs for various sections will be as follows:

QA : 12 to 13

LR : 9 to 10

DI: 9 to 10

RC: 7 to 8

EU: 6 to 7

GA: 5 to 6

 

As you read through this analysis you realize that creating and implementing a time strategy is critical to your performance in MBA entrance tests. So even if you were not doing so. Do it now onwards in every test and your practice test as you continue your journey forward.

 

Let me remind you again of the effort that your faculty team makes in making available such detailed analysis along with our backend team that makes it all possible.

 

We remain, your best friends in your journey to high profile careers. All the very best for your coming tests.

 

We will be back with our analysis of the most awaited exam of the year i.e. CAT 2015 which is going to be held on a single day this year on 29th November 2015. We wish you all the best for the CAT.


QA
Question 1
Question:

The internal evaluation for Economics course in an Engineering programme is based on the score of four quizzes. Rahul has secured 70, 90 and 80 in the first three quizzes. The fourth quiz has ten True-False type question, each carrying 10 marks. What is the probability that Rahul’s average internal marks for the Economics course is more than 80, given that her decides to quess randomly on the final quiz ?

  1. 12/1024
  2. 11/1024
  3. 11/256
  4. 12/256


Solution:

(b); To score average more than 80, he must answer more than 8 question correct i.e. 9 or 10. The required probability is 10C­9 (1/2 )9 (1/2) +  10C10 (1/2)10  = 11/1024


Question 2
Question:

In 2004, Rohini was thrice as old as her brother Arvind. In 2014, Rohini was only six years older than her brother. In which year was Rohini born?

  1. 1984
  2. 1986
  3. 1995
  4. 2000


Solution:

  1. (c); In 2004, Let her brother’s age = x

Therefore  Rohini = 3x

In 2014, Rohini = 3x + 10 & brother = x + 10

3x + 10 = 6 + x + 10 => x = 3

Therefore In 2004, Rohini’s age = 3x 29 years.

Therefore She was born in 1995.


Question 3
Question:

If p, q and r are three unequal numbers such that p, q and r are in A. P., and p, r-q and q-p are in G.P., then p:q:r is equal to:

  1. 1:2:3
  2. 2:3:4
  3. 3:2:1
  4. 1:3:4


Solution:

(a); Looking at the options, option (a); 1 : 2 : 3

Let P = 1, q = 2, r = 3

Now P (=1), r = q (3 – 2 = 1) and q-p (2 – 1 = 1)

Is a. G.P.


Question 4
Question:

If log255 = a and log2515 = b, then the value of log2527 is:

  1. 3(b + a)
  2. 3(1-b-a)
  3. 3(a+b-1)
  4. 3(1-b+a)


Solution:

(c); Log255 = a & log2515 = b. check each option

Option (c) is 3 (a + b – 1) = 3 (log255 + log255 – 1)

= 3 (log2575 – log2525) = 3 (log253) = log2533 = log2527.


Question 5
Question:

During the essay writing stage of MBA admission process in a reputed B-School, each group consists of 10 students. In one such group, two students are batchmates from the same IIT department. Assuming that the students are sitting in a row, the number of ways in which the students can sit so that the two batchmates are not sitting next to each other, is:

  1. 3540340
  2. 2874590
  3. 2903040
  4. None of the above


Solution:

(c); Total ways = 10! = 3628800

Two people sit adjacent = 2! X 9! = 725760

Two people do not sit adjacent = 2903040.


Question 6
Question:

The pre-paid recharge of Airtel gives 21% less talktime than the same price pre-paid recharge of Vodafone. The post –paid talktime of Airtel is 12% more than its pre-paid recharge, having the same price. Further, the post-paid talktime of same price of Vodafone is 15% less than its pre-paid recharge. How much percent less / more talktime can one get from the Airtel post-paid service compared to the post-paid service of Vodafone?

  1. 3.9% more
  2. 4.7% less
  3. 4.7 % more
  4. 2.8% less

 


Solution:

  1. (a);

 

Prepaid

Post Paid

Airtel

79

88.48

Vodafone

100

85

 

Required % = 88.48-85 / 85 x 100 » 4% more


Question 7
Question:

As a strategy towards retention of customers, the service centre of a split AC machine manufacturer offers discount as per the following rule: for the second service in a year, the customer can avail of a 10% discount; for the third and fourth servicing within a year, the customer can avail of 11% and 12% discounts respectively of the previous amount paid. Finally, if a customer gets more than four services within a year, he has to pay just 55% of the original servicing charge. If Roshan has availed 5 services from the same service centre in a given year, the total percentage discount availed by him is approximately:

  1. 16.52
  2. 20.88
  3. 22.33
  4. 24.08


Solution:

  1. (b);

 

I

II

III

IV

V

Total

Actual Amount

100

100

100

100

100

500

Amount Paid

100

90

80.1

70.5

55

 

Discount

0

10

19.9

29.5

45

104.4

 

Total % discount = 104.4 / 500 x 100 = 20.88%.


Question 8
Question:

A tank is connected with both inlet pipes and outlet pipes. Individually, an inlet pipe and fill the tank in 7 hours and an outlet pipe can empty it in 5 hours. If all the pipes are kept open, it takes exactly 7 hours for a completely filled-in tank to empty. If the total number of pipes connected to the tank is 11, how many of these are inlet pipes?

  1. 2
  2. 4
  3. 5
  4. 6


Solution:

(d); Solve by options;

If Inlet pipes = 6, outlet = 5

5 pipes empties 5/5 of the tank in 1 hr & 6 pipes fill  6 / 7 of the tank in 1 hr

Therefore in 7 hr, 7(1-6/7) = 1.


Question 9
Question:

In a certain village, 22% of the families own agricultural land, 18% own a mobile phone and 1600 families own both agricultural land an mobile phone. If 68% of the families neither own agricultural land nor a mobile phone, then the total number of families living in the village is:

  1. 20000
  2. 10000
  3. 8000
  4. 5000


Solution:

(a);

 

(A È B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A Ç B)

32 = 22  + 18 – x

x = 8%

Therefore 8% of total = 1600

Therefore Total number of families = 20000.


Question 10
Question:

In the board meeting of a FMCG Company, everybody present in the meeting shakes hand with everybody else. If the total number of handshakes is 78, the number of members who attended the board meeting is:

  1. 7
  2. 9
  3. 11
  4. 13


Solution:

(d); nC2 = 78 => n = 13.


Question 11
Question:

A firm is thinking of buying a printer for its office use for the next one year. The criterion for choosing is based on the least per-page printing cost. It can choose between an inkjet printer which costs Rs. 5000 and a laser printer which costs Rs. 8000. The per-page printing cost for an inkjet is Rs. 1.80 and that for a laser printer is Rs. 1.50. the firm should purchase the laser printer, if the minimum number of pages to be printed in the year exceeds

  1. 5000
  2. 10000
  3. 15000
  4. 18000


Solution:

  1. (b);

 

Fixed Cost

Variable Cost

Inkjet

5000

1.8 / page

Loser

8000

1.5 / page

 

Let for x pages, the cost for both the printers is same.

Therefore 5000 + 1.8x = 8000 + 1.5x

Therefore x = 10000.


Question 12
Question:

If in the figure below, angle XYZ = 90° and the length of the arc XZ = 10pi , then the area of the sector XYZ is:

  1. 10pi
  2. 25pi
  3. 100pi
  4. None of the above


Solution:

(c); Length of arc XZ = 10Pi & Angle XYZ = 90°

Therefore Circumference of the circle is 40pi. (since the complete angle is 360°.)

2pi r = 40pi

=> r = 20.

Area of sector = 90 / 360 x pi (20)2 = 100 pi.


Question 13
Question:

A chartered bus carrying office employees travels everyday in two shifts – morning and evening. In the evening, the bus travels at an average speed which is 50% greater than then morning average speed; but takes 50% more time than the amount of time it takes in the morning. The average speed of the chartered bus for the entire journey is greater / less than its average speed in the morning by:           

  1. 18% les
  2. 30% greater
  3. 37.5% greater
  4. 50% less

 


Solution:

(b);

 

Morning

 

Evening

 

n

2

:

3

5 (Total time)

r

2

:

3

13/5 (Average speed)

v

4

:

9

13 (Total Distance)

 

The required % = 13/5 – 2 / 2 x 100 = 30%.


Question 14
Question:

If a right circular cylinder of height 14 is inscribed in a sphere of radius 8, then the volume of the cylinder is:

  1. 110
  2. 220
  3. 440
  4. 660


Solution:

(d);

In triangle OAB,

82 = 72 + r2

r2 = 15

V = pir2h = 22/7 x 15 x 14 = 660.


Question 15
Question:

Seema has joined a new Company after the completion of her B. tech from a reputed engineering college in Chennai. She saves 10% of her income in each of the first three months of her service and for every subsequent month, her savings are Rs. 50 more than the savings of the immediate previous month. If her joining income was Rs. 3000, her total savings from the start of the service will be Rs. 11400 in:

  1. 6 months
  2. 12 months
  3. 18 months
  4. 24 months


Solution:

(c); Her saving in each of the three months in 300 i.e. total of Rs. 900. Remaining saving = 10500.

In 4th months, she saves Rs. 350, 5th month, Rs 400 and so on.

Therefore 10500 = n / 2 {2 x 350 + (n – 1) x 50} on saving, n = 15

Therefore Number of months = 15 + 3 = 18.


Question 16
Question:

Sailesh is working as a sales executive with a reputed FMCG Company in Hyderabad. As per the Company’s Policy, Sailesh gets a commission of 6% on all sales upto Rs. 1,00,000 and 5% on all sales in excess of this amount. If Sailesh remits Rs. 2, 65,000 to the FMCG company after deducting his commission, his total sales were worth:

  1. Rs. 1,20,000
  2. Rs. 2,90,526
  3. Rs. 2,21,054
  4. Rs. 2,80,000


Solution:

(d); Check each of the options.

For option D, total commission

= 6% of 100000 + 5% of 180000 = 15000

Therefore He remits 280000 – 15000 = 2, 65, 000.


Question 17
Question:

Three carpenters P, Q and R entrusted with office furniture work. P can do a job in 42 days. If Q is 26% more efficient than P and R is 50% more efficient than Q, then Q and R together can finish the job in approximately:

  1. 11 days
  2. 13 days
  3. 15 days
  4. 17 days


Solution:

(b);

 

P

Q

R

Q + R

N

42

100/3

200/9

13.33

R

 

6

9

15

V

 

200

 

200

 


Question 18
Question:

There are two alloys P and Q made up of silver, copper and aluminum. Alloy P contains 45% silver and rest aluminum. Alloy Q contains 30% silver, 35% copper and rest aluminum. Alloys P and Q are mixed in the ratio of 1: 4.5. the approximate percentage of silver and copper in the newly formed alloy is:  

  1. 33% and 29%
  2. 29% and 26%
  3. 35% and 30%
  4. None of the above


Solution:

(a); Ratio of quantities of two alloys is 1 : 4.5. let us take the quantities as 20 & 90

Total

Silver

Copper

Aluminum

20

45%

0

55%

90

30%

35%

35%

% of silver = (45% of 20 + 30% of 90) / 110 x 100

= 90 + 27 / 110 x 100 = 33% (approx)

% of copper = 35% of 90 / 110 x 100 = 29% (approx)


Question 19
Question:

A ladder of 7.6 m long is standing against a wall and the difference between the wall and the base of the ladder is 6.4 m. if the top of the ladder now slips by 1.2 m, then the foot of the ladder shifts by approximately:  

  1. 0.4 m
  2. 0.6 m
  3. 0. 8 m
  4. 1.2 m


Solution:

(b); 0.6m.


Question 20
Question:

The value of x for which the equation (4x-9)^1/2 + (4x + 9)^1/22 = 5 + (7)^1/2 will be satisfied, is :

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4


Solution:

(d); Substitute the value of x from each option, at x = 4

LHS = root 7 + root 25 = root 7 + 5.


Question 21
Question:

The simplest value of the expression  4^(p+1/4)………………. is  (see the complete question in the question paper)

  1. 4
  2. 8
  3. 4P
  4. 8P


Solution:

(b); On simplifying, we get the expression as 23 = 8.


Question 22
Question:

In a reputed engineering college in Delhi, students are evaluated based on trimesters. The probability that an Engineering student fails in the first trimester is 0.08. if he does not fail in the first trimester, the probability that he is promoted to the second year is 0.87. the probability that the student will complete the first year in the Engineering College is approximately:

  1. 0.8
  2. 0.6
  3. 0.4
  4. 0.7


Solution:

(a); The required Probability is 0.92 x 0.87 = 0.8.


DILR
Question 1

Directions for Qs. 23 – 27: Solve the question based on the information provided in the passage below: 

 

Six engineers Anthony, Brad, Carla, Dinesh, Evan and Frank are offered jobs at six different locations – England, Germany, India, Australia, Singapore and UAE. The jobs offered are in six different branches, and are based on their competence as well as preference. The branches are IT, Mechanical, Chemical, Electronics, Metallurgy and Electrical, though not necessarily in the same order. Their placements are subject to the following conditions:

 

i. The engineer in the Electrical Department is not placed in Germany.

ii. Anthony is placed in Singapore while Dinesh in UAE.

iii. Frank is not in the Metallurgy Department buy brad is in the Chemical Department.

iv. Evan is placed in the Mechanical Department while Frank is offered a job in Australia.

v. The only department offering jobs in India is the Chemical Department while there are no vacancies for IT in Singapore.  

vi. Anthony is interested in IT and Electrical Department While Frank is interested in IT and Mechanical Department. Both of them settle for the options available based on their interests in the locations allotted to them.

vii. In recent years, UAE has emerged as a hub for metallurgy exports and thus recruitment is done for the same while all mechanical posts are in England.

Question:

Who joined the Electronics Department?

a. Dinesh

b. Anthony

c. Carla     

d. Brad


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Name

Place

Branch

A

Singapore

Electrical

B

India

Chemical

C

Germany

Electronics

D

UAE

Matt.

E

England

Mech

F

Aus

IT

(c)


Question 2

Directions for Qs. 23 – 27: Solve the question based on the information provided in the passage below: 

 

Six engineers Anthony, Brad, Carla, Dinesh, Evan and Frank are offered jobs at six different locations – England, Germany, India, Australia, Singapore and UAE. The jobs offered are in six different branches, and are based on their competence as well as preference. The branches are IT, Mechanical, Chemical, Electronics, Metallurgy and Electrical, though not necessarily in the same order. Their placements are subject to the following conditions:

 

i. The engineer in the Electrical Department is not placed in Germany.

ii. Anthony is placed in Singapore while Dinesh in UAE.

iii. Frank is not in the Metallurgy Department buy brad is in the Chemical Department.

iv. Evan is placed in the Mechanical Department while Frank is offered a job in Australia.

v. The only department offering jobs in India is the Chemical Department while there are no vacancies for IT in Singapore.  

vi. Anthony is interested in IT and Electrical Department While Frank is interested in IT and Mechanical Department. Both of them settle for the options available based on their interests in the locations allotted to them.

vii. In recent years, UAE has emerged as a hub for metallurgy exports and thus recruitment is done for the same while all mechanical posts are in England.

Question:

The person placed in UAE is in the ______________ Department

a. Electronics 

b. Mechanical

c. Metallurgy

d. Chemical


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Name

Place

Branch

A

Singapore

Electrical

B

India

Chemical

C

Germany

Electronics

D

UAE

Matt.

E

England

Mech

F

Aus

IT

(c)


Question 3

Directions for Qs. 23 – 27: Solve the question based on the information provided in the passage below: 

 

Six engineers Anthony, Brad, Carla, Dinesh, Evan and Frank are offered jobs at six different locations – England, Germany, India, Australia, Singapore and UAE. The jobs offered are in six different branches, and are based on their competence as well as preference. The branches are IT, Mechanical, Chemical, Electronics, Metallurgy and Electrical, though not necessarily in the same order. Their placements are subject to the following conditions:

 

i. The engineer in the Electrical Department is not placed in Germany.

ii. Anthony is placed in Singapore while Dinesh in UAE.

iii. Frank is not in the Metallurgy Department buy brad is in the Chemical Department.

iv. Evan is placed in the Mechanical Department while Frank is offered a job in Australia.

v. The only department offering jobs in India is the Chemical Department while there are no vacancies for IT in Singapore.  

vi. Anthony is interested in IT and Electrical Department While Frank is interested in IT and Mechanical Department. Both of them settle for the options available based on their interests in the locations allotted to them.

vii. In recent years, UAE has emerged as a hub for metallurgy exports and thus recruitment is done for the same while all mechanical posts are in England.

Question:

Out of the following, which is the correct combination?

a. Anthony-Germany-Electrical

b. Brad-India-Chemical

c. Evan-England-Electronics

d. Frank-Australia-Metallurgy


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Name

Place

Branch

A

Singapore

Electrical

B

India

Chemical

C

Germany

Electronics

D

UAE

Matt.

E

England

Mech

F

Aus

IT

(b)


Question 4

Directions for Qs. 23 – 27: Solve the question based on the information provided in the passage below: 

 

Six engineers Anthony, Brad, Carla, Dinesh, Evan and Frank are offered jobs at six different locations – England, Germany, India, Australia, Singapore and UAE. The jobs offered are in six different branches, and are based on their competence as well as preference. The branches are IT, Mechanical, Chemical, Electronics, Metallurgy and Electrical, though not necessarily in the same order. Their placements are subject to the following conditions:

 

i. The engineer in the Electrical Department is not placed in Germany.

ii. Anthony is placed in Singapore while Dinesh in UAE.

iii. Frank is not in the Metallurgy Department buy brad is in the Chemical Department.

iv. Evan is placed in the Mechanical Department while Frank is offered a job in Australia.

v. The only department offering jobs in India is the Chemical Department while there are no vacancies for IT in Singapore.  

vi. Anthony is interested in IT and Electrical Department While Frank is interested in IT and Mechanical Department. Both of them settle for the options available based on their interests in the locations allotted to them.

vii. In recent years, UAE has emerged as a hub for metallurgy exports and thus recruitment is done for the same while all mechanical posts are in England.

Question:

Who joined the IT Department in Australia ?

a. Frank

b. Carla

c. Evan

d. Brad


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Name

Place

Branch

A

Singapore

Electrical

B

India

Chemical

C

Germany

Electronics

D

UAE

Matt.

E

England

Mech

F

Aus

IT

(a)


Question 5

Directions for Qs. 23 – 27: Solve the question based on the information provided in the passage below: 

 

Six engineers Anthony, Brad, Carla, Dinesh, Evan and Frank are offered jobs at six different locations – England, Germany, India, Australia, Singapore and UAE. The jobs offered are in six different branches, and are based on their competence as well as preference. The branches are IT, Mechanical, Chemical, Electronics, Metallurgy and Electrical, though not necessarily in the same order. Their placements are subject to the following conditions:

 

i. The engineer in the Electrical Department is not placed in Germany.

ii. Anthony is placed in Singapore while Dinesh in UAE.

iii. Frank is not in the Metallurgy Department buy brad is in the Chemical Department.

iv. Evan is placed in the Mechanical Department while Frank is offered a job in Australia.

v. The only department offering jobs in India is the Chemical Department while there are no vacancies for IT in Singapore.  

vi. Anthony is interested in IT and Electrical Department While Frank is interested in IT and Mechanical Department. Both of them settle for the options available based on their interests in the locations allotted to them.

vii. In recent years, UAE has emerged as a hub for metallurgy exports and thus recruitment is done for the same while all mechanical posts are in England.

Question:

Which combination is true for Dinesh?

a. India-Electrical

b. UAE-Electronics

c. England-Metallurgy

d. UAE- Metallurgy 


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Name

Place

Branch

A

Singapore

Electrical

B

India

Chemical

C

Germany

Electronics

D

UAE

Matt.

E

England

Mech

F

Aus

IT

(d)


Question 6
Question:

Based on the given statement, choose the right conclusion:

‘ If the breakfast doesn’t have eggs, I will not go for a walk and will not have lunch’. 

a. If I went for a walk and didn’t have lunch, the breakfast didn’t have eggs.

b. If I went for a walk or I had lunch, the breakfast had eggs.

c. If I went for a walk and had lunch, the breakfast had eggs.

d. If I didn’t go for a walk and had lunch, the breakfast had eggs.


Solution:

(b)


Question 7

Directions for Qs. 29 – 32: Read the details below and answer the questions that follow. 

Due to astrological reasons, a mother named all her daughters with the alphabet  ‘K’ as Kamla, Kamlesh, Kriti, Kripa, Kranti and Kalpana.

i. Kamla is not the tallest while Kripa is not the most qualified.

ii. The shortest is the most qualified amongst them all.

iii. Kalpana is more qualified than Kamlesh but is taller than Kamlesh.

iv. Kamla is less qualified than Kamlesh but is taller than Kamlesh.

v. Kalpana is shorter than Kriti but taller than Kranti.

vi. Kriti ismore qualified than Kamla while Kamlesh is taller than Kriti.

vii. Kripa is the least qualified amongst the daughters.

Question:

Who is the third tallest starting in decreasing order of height?

a. Kamla

b. Kamlesh

c. Kriti

d. Kranti


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Height

Qualified

Kripa (tallest)

Kranti (most)

Kamla

Kalpana

Kamlesh

Kamlesh

Kriti

Kriti

Kalpana

Kamla

Kranti

Kripa

 

(b)


Question 8

Directions for Qs. 29 – 32: Read the details below and answer the questions that follow. 

Due to astrological reasons, a mother named all her daughters with the alphabet  ‘K’ as Kamla, Kamlesh, Kriti, Kripa, Kranti and Kalpana.

i. Kamla is not the tallest while Kripa is not the most qualified.

ii. The shortest is the most qualified amongst them all.

iii. Kalpana is more qualified than Kamlesh but is taller than Kamlesh.

iv. Kamla is less qualified than Kamlesh but is taller than Kamlesh.

v. Kalpana is shorter than Kriti but taller than Kranti.

vi. Kriti ismore qualified than Kamla while Kamlesh is taller than Kriti.

vii. Kripa is the least qualified amongst the daughters.

Question:

Who is the most qualified?

a. Kamlesh

b. Kriti

c. Kripa

d. Kranti

 


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Height

Qualified

Kripa (tallest)

Kranti (most)

Kamla

Kalpana

Kamlesh

Kamlesh

Kriti

Kriti

Kalpana

Kamla

Kranti

Kripa

 

(d)


Question 9

Directions for Qs. 29 – 32: Read the details below and answer the questions that follow. 

Due to astrological reasons, a mother named all her daughters with the alphabet  ‘K’ as Kamla, Kamlesh, Kriti, Kripa, Kranti and Kalpana.

i. Kamla is not the tallest while Kripa is not the most qualified.

ii. The shortest is the most qualified amongst them all.

iii. Kalpana is more qualified than Kamlesh but is taller than Kamlesh.

iv. Kamla is less qualified than Kamlesh but is taller than Kamlesh.

v. Kalpana is shorter than Kriti but taller than Kranti.

vi. Kriti ismore qualified than Kamla while Kamlesh is taller than Kriti.

vii. Kripa is the least qualified amongst the daughters.

Question:

What is the rank of Kriti is increasing order of qualification?

a. 2

b. 3

c. 5

d. 4

 


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Height

Qualified

Kripa (tallest)

Kranti (most)

Kamla

Kalpana

Kamlesh

Kamlesh

Kriti

Kriti

Kalpana

Kamla

Kranti

Kripa

 

(b)


Question 10

Directions for Qs. 29 – 32: Read the details below and answer the questions that follow. 

Due to astrological reasons, a mother named all her daughters with the alphabet  ‘K’ as Kamla, Kamlesh, Kriti, Kripa, Kranti and Kalpana.

i. Kamla is not the tallest while Kripa is not the most qualified.

ii. The shortest is the most qualified amongst them all.

iii. Kalpana is more qualified than Kamlesh but is taller than Kamlesh.

iv. Kamla is less qualified than Kamlesh but is taller than Kamlesh.

v. Kalpana is shorter than Kriti but taller than Kranti.

vi. Kriti ismore qualified than Kamla while Kamlesh is taller than Kriti.

vii. Kripa is the least qualified amongst the daughters.

Question:

What is the rank of Kamla in increasing order of height?

a. 3

b. 5

c. 4

d. 2

 


Solution:

From the information given, following table can be prepared;

Height

Qualified

Kripa (tallest)

Kranti (most)

Kamla

Kalpana

Kamlesh

Kamlesh

Kriti

Kriti

Kalpana

Kamla

Kranti

Kripa

 

(b)


Question 11
Question:

Based on the number series given, fill in the missing number.  

18, 37, 76, 155,________, 633, 1272

a. 322

b. 314

c. 341

d. 250


Solution:

(b)


Question 12

Directions for Qs. 34 – 36: Based on the conditions stated in the passage below, answer the questions that follow. 

There are three countries, USA, UAE and UK. An exporter can select one country or two countries or all the three countries subject to the conditions below:

Condition 1: Both USA and UAE have to be selected.

Condition 2: Either USA or UK, but not both have to be selected.

Condition 3: UAE can be selected only if UK has been selected.

Condition 4: USA can be selected only if UK is selected.

Question:

How many countries can be selected if no condition is imposed?

a. 6

b. 4

c. 7

d. 8

 


Solution:

(b); Considering the question is in how many ways countries can be selected

Solution is 3C1 + 3C2 + 3C3 = 7 ways


Question 13

Directions for Qs. 34 – 36: Based on the conditions stated in the passage below, answer the questions that follow. 

There are three countries, USA, UAE and UK. An exporter can select one country or two countries or all the three countries subject to the conditions below:

Condition 1: Both USA and UAE have to be selected.

Condition 2: Either USA or UK, but not both have to be selected.

Condition 3: UAE can be selected only if UK has been selected.

Condition 4: USA can be selected only if UK is selected.

Question:

How many countries can be selected to meet only condition 1?

a. 0

b. 2

c. 1

d. 3

 


Solution:

(b); Considering question is in how many ways countries can be selected

Solution is = as per condition 1. Both USA & UAE have to be selected and along with them UK can either be selected or not, so 2 ways.


Question 14

Directions for Qs. 34 – 36: Based on the conditions stated in the passage below, answer the questions that follow. 

There are three countries, USA, UAE and UK. An exporter can select one country or two countries or all the three countries subject to the conditions below:

Condition 1: Both USA and UAE have to be selected.

Condition 2: Either USA or UK, but not both have to be selected.

Condition 3: UAE can be selected only if UK has been selected.

Condition 4: USA can be selected only if UK is selected.

Question:

How many countries can be selected to meet only conditions 2 and 3?

a. 0

b. 2 or 1

c. 0 or 1

d. None of these


Solution:

(b); Using condition 2 either USA or UK but not both can be selected there are two case

Case 1 only USA is selected so using condition 3 UAE cannot be selected. So only one country is selected.

Case 2 If only UK is selected so using condition 3 UAE also selected. So 2 countries are selected.

So answer is either 1 to 2.


Question 15
Question:

Based on the following relations, which of the given options indicate that W is the niece of X?

A + B means that A is the brother of B.

A*B means that A is the father of B.

A-B means that A is the sister of B.

a. X+Y+Z-W 

b. Z-W*Y+X

c. X+Y*W-Z

d. X*Y+W-Z

 


Solution:

(c)


Question 16
Question:

Alex walks 1 mile towards East and then he turns towards South and walks further 5 miles. After that he turns East and walks 2 miles further. Finally he turns to his North and walks 9 miles. How far is he from the starting point?

a. 25 miles

b. 2 miles

c. 5 miles

d. 4 miles

 


Solution:

(c)


Question 17
Question:

From the given statements, choose the conclusions which follow logically:

Statement: 

i. Some iphones are mobiles

ii. Some mobiles are ipads

iii. Some ipads are tablets

Conclusions:

I. Some tablets are iphones

II. Some mobiles are tablets

III. Some ipads are iphones

IV. All iphones are tablets

 

A. Only I & II follow

B. Only I, II & III follow

C. Only II & III follow

D. None of these


Solution:

(d)


Question 18

Directions for Qs. 40 – 42: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. 

Export cargo of a trader can go through seven cities P, Q, R, S, T, U and V. the following cities have a two way connection i.e., Cargo can more in both directions between them; S and U, P and Q, Q and R, V and T, R and T, V and U. Cargo can move only in one direction from U to Q.

Question:

If the trader wants the cargo to move from City S to City T then excluding cities S and T, what is the minimum number of cities that the cargo has to cross in transit?

a. 4

b. 3

c. 2

d. 5

 


Solution:

(c)


Question 19

Directions for Qs. 40 – 42: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. 

Export cargo of a trader can go through seven cities P, Q, R, S, T, U and V. the following cities have a two way connection i.e., Cargo can more in both directions between them; S and U, P and Q, Q and R, V and T, R and T, V and U. Cargo can move only in one direction from U to Q.

Question:

If the trader wants the cargo to go to City U from City P through the longest route, how many cities will he be required to cross (excluding cities P and U)?

a. 2

b. 4

c. 3

d. 5

 


Solution:

(b)


Question 20

Directions for Qs. 40 – 42: Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. 

Export cargo of a trader can go through seven cities P, Q, R, S, T, U and V. the following cities have a two way connection i.e., Cargo can more in both directions between them; S and U, P and Q, Q and R, V and T, R and T, V and U. Cargo can move only in one direction from U to Q.

Question:

To move cargo from City P to City U, which of the following statements will minimize the number of cities to be crossed in transit?

a. Connect cities U to R with a two way connection

b. Connect cities P to S with a one way connection from cities S to P

c. Connect cities U to Q with a two way connection

d. Connection cities R to V with a two way connection


Solution:

(c)


Question 21

Directions for Qs. 43 – 47: Read the following information and tables and answer the question that follow.

 

Torrent Enterprises sells air conditioners of Eagle Brand in the retail market of Delhi. The month-wise total number of Window Air Conditioner (WAC) units sold by Torrent during April 2014 to March 2015 are shows below in Table B shows the share of different types of WACs in total monthly sales for the said period.

 

Number of Units Sold by Torrent Enterprises During the Period April 14 to March 15

 

Table A

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Apr-14

1266

Aug-14

1296

Dec-14

1300

May-14

1268

Sep-14

1296

Jan-15

1330

Jun-14

1272

Oct-14

1298

Feb-15

1340

Jul-14

1292

Nov-14

1300

Mar-15

1350

 

 

Table B

WAC Type (Tonnage)

April, May & Sep

Jun, Jul & Dec

Aug, Feb & Mar

Oct, Nov & Jan

Two Ton

20.00%

25.00%

3100%

25.00%

One & Half Ton

19.00%

33.00%

19.00%

33.00%

One Ton

14.00%

12.00%

34.00%

26.00%

Half Ton

47.00%

30.00%

16.00%

16.00%

 

 

Performance measures are as follows:

 

Half Yearly Sales Performance:

 

Oct 14 to Mar 15 Average Sales – April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

 

Monthly Sales Performance:

 

Current Month Sales – Previous Month Sales

Previous Month Sales

 

Sales Volatility:

 

Maximum Monthly Sales – Minimum Monthly Sales

Average Monthly Sales

Question:

What is the closest average number of 1 ½ ton Window ACs sold by Torrent Enterprises during April 2014- March 2015?

a. 342

b. 338

c. 350

d. 330

 


Solution:

(b); Average no. of 1 ½ ton ACs.

= 0.19 (1266 + 1268 + 1296 + 1296 + 1340 + 1350) + 0.35 (1272 + 1292 + 1298 + 1300 + 1300 + 1330) / 12

= 4056.36 / 12 = 338.


Question 22

Directions for Qs. 43 – 47: Read the following information and tables and answer the question that follow.

 

Torrent Enterprises sells air conditioners of Eagle Brand in the retail market of Delhi. The month-wise total number of Window Air Conditioner (WAC) units sold by Torrent during April 2014 to March 2015 are shows below in Table B shows the share of different types of WACs in total monthly sales for the said period.

 

Number of Units Sold by Torrent Enterprises During the Period April 14 to March 15

 

Table A

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Apr-14

1266

Aug-14

1296

Dec-14

1300

May-14

1268

Sep-14

1296

Jan-15

1330

Jun-14

1272

Oct-14

1298

Feb-15

1340

Jul-14

1292

Nov-14

1300

Mar-15

1350

 

 

Table B

WAC Type (Tonnage)

April, May & Sep

Jun, Jul & Dec

Aug, Feb & Mar

Oct, Nov & Jan

Two Ton

20.00%

25.00%

3100%

25.00%

One & Half Ton

19.00%

33.00%

19.00%

33.00%

One Ton

14.00%

12.00%

34.00%

26.00%

Half Ton

47.00%

30.00%

16.00%

16.00%

 

 

Performance measures are as follows:

 

Half Yearly Sales Performance:

 

Oct 14 to Mar 15 Average Sales – April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

 

Monthly Sales Performance:

 

Current Month Sales – Previous Month Sales

Previous Month Sales

 

Sales Volatility:

 

Maximum Monthly Sales – Minimum Monthly Sales

Average Monthly Sales

Question:

The absolute difference between average annual sales (in units) of which pair of WACs type is the highest

a. 1 Ton and ½ Tone

b. 1 Ton and 2 Ton

c. 2 Ton and ½ Ton

d. 1 ½ Ton and ½ Ton

 


Solution:

(a); Total Sales of Two ton =  

= 0.20 (1266 + 1268 + 1296) + 0.25 (1272 + 1292 + 1300) + 0.31 (1296 + 1340 + 1350) + 0.25 (1298 + 1300 + 1330)

= 0.2 (3830) + 0.25 (3864) + 0.31 (3986) + 0.25 (3928) = 3989

For 1 ½ ton = 4056

For 1 ton= 0.14 (3830) + 0.12 (3864) + 0.34 (3986) + 0.26 (3928) = 3355

For ½ ton = 0.47 (3830) + 0.30 (3864) + 0.16 (3986) + 0.16 (3928) = 4225

Highest difference is for 1 ton & ½ ton.


Question 23

Directions for Qs. 43 – 47: Read the following information and tables and answer the question that follow.

 

Torrent Enterprises sells air conditioners of Eagle Brand in the retail market of Delhi. The month-wise total number of Window Air Conditioner (WAC) units sold by Torrent during April 2014 to March 2015 are shows below in Table B shows the share of different types of WACs in total monthly sales for the said period.

 

Number of Units Sold by Torrent Enterprises During the Period April 14 to March 15

 

Table A

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Apr-14

1266

Aug-14

1296

Dec-14

1300

May-14

1268

Sep-14

1296

Jan-15

1330

Jun-14

1272

Oct-14

1298

Feb-15

1340

Jul-14

1292

Nov-14

1300

Mar-15

1350

 

 

Table B

WAC Type (Tonnage)

April, May & Sep

Jun, Jul & Dec

Aug, Feb & Mar

Oct, Nov & Jan

Two Ton

20.00%

25.00%

3100%

25.00%

One & Half Ton

19.00%

33.00%

19.00%

33.00%

One Ton

14.00%

12.00%

34.00%

26.00%

Half Ton

47.00%

30.00%

16.00%

16.00%

 

 

Performance measures are as follows:

 

Half Yearly Sales Performance:

 

Oct 14 to Mar 15 Average Sales – April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

 

Monthly Sales Performance:

 

Current Month Sales – Previous Month Sales

Previous Month Sales

 

Sales Volatility:

 

Maximum Monthly Sales – Minimum Monthly Sales

Average Monthly Sales

Question:

Which type of WAC has performed the second best in Half Yearly Sales Performance?

a. ½ Ton

b. 1 Ton 

c. 1 ½ Ton

d. 2 Ton

 


Solution:

(c); Oct to Mar for ½ ton
0.16 (1298 + 1300) + 0.30 (1300) + 0.16 (1330) + 0.16 (1340 + 1350) = 1449
Apr to Sep = 0.47 (3830) + 0.30 (1272 + 1292) + 0.16 (1296) = 2776
Half yearly sales performance for ½ ton = 1449 – 2776 / 2776 = – 0.478
Similarly for 1 ton = 2091 – 1283 / 1283 = 0.63
For 1 ½ ton = 2236 – 1819 / 1819 = 0.23
For 2 ton = 2141 – 1808 / 1808 = 0.18
Second best is for 1 ½ ton WAC.


Question 24

Directions for Qs. 43 – 47: Read the following information and tables and answer the question that follow.

 

Torrent Enterprises sells air conditioners of Eagle Brand in the retail market of Delhi. The month-wise total number of Window Air Conditioner (WAC) units sold by Torrent during April 2014 to March 2015 are shows below in Table B shows the share of different types of WACs in total monthly sales for the said period.

 

Number of Units Sold by Torrent Enterprises During the Period April 14 to March 15

 

Table A

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Apr-14

1266

Aug-14

1296

Dec-14

1300

May-14

1268

Sep-14

1296

Jan-15

1330

Jun-14

1272

Oct-14

1298

Feb-15

1340

Jul-14

1292

Nov-14

1300

Mar-15

1350

 

 

Table B

WAC Type (Tonnage)

April, May & Sep

Jun, Jul & Dec

Aug, Feb & Mar

Oct, Nov & Jan

Two Ton

20.00%

25.00%

3100%

25.00%

One & Half Ton

19.00%

33.00%

19.00%

33.00%

One Ton

14.00%

12.00%

34.00%

26.00%

Half Ton

47.00%

30.00%

16.00%

16.00%

 

 

Performance measures are as follows:

 

Half Yearly Sales Performance:

 

Oct 14 to Mar 15 Average Sales – April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

 

Monthly Sales Performance:

 

Current Month Sales – Previous Month Sales

Previous Month Sales

 

Sales Volatility:

 

Maximum Monthly Sales – Minimum Monthly Sales

Average Monthly Sales

Question:

In which of the months given below, the total WAC Monthly Sales Performance was the highest?

a. May 2014

b. June 2014

c. October 2014

d. February 2015

 


Solution:

(d); For May = 1268 – 1266 / 1266 = .0016

For Jun = 1272 – 1268 / 1268 = .0031

For Oct = 1298-1296 / 1296 = .0015

For Feb = 1340 – 1330 / 1330 = .0075.


Question 25

Directions for Qs. 43 – 47: Read the following information and tables and answer the question that follow.

 

Torrent Enterprises sells air conditioners of Eagle Brand in the retail market of Delhi. The month-wise total number of Window Air Conditioner (WAC) units sold by Torrent during April 2014 to March 2015 are shows below in Table B shows the share of different types of WACs in total monthly sales for the said period.

 

Number of Units Sold by Torrent Enterprises During the Period April 14 to March 15

 

Table A

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Month

Units Sold

Apr-14

1266

Aug-14

1296

Dec-14

1300

May-14

1268

Sep-14

1296

Jan-15

1330

Jun-14

1272

Oct-14

1298

Feb-15

1340

Jul-14

1292

Nov-14

1300

Mar-15

1350

 

 

Table B

WAC Type (Tonnage)

April, May & Sep

Jun, Jul & Dec

Aug, Feb & Mar

Oct, Nov & Jan

Two Ton

20.00%

25.00%

3100%

25.00%

One & Half Ton

19.00%

33.00%

19.00%

33.00%

One Ton

14.00%

12.00%

34.00%

26.00%

Half Ton

47.00%

30.00%

16.00%

16.00%

 

 

Performance measures are as follows:

 

Half Yearly Sales Performance:

 

Oct 14 to Mar 15 Average Sales – April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

April 14 to Sep 14 Average Sales

 

Monthly Sales Performance:

 

Current Month Sales – Previous Month Sales

Previous Month Sales

 

Sales Volatility:

 

Maximum Monthly Sales – Minimum Monthly Sales

Average Monthly Sales

Question:

Which type of WAC has the least Sales Volatility?

a. ½ Ton

b. 1 Ton

c. 1 ½ Ton

d. 2 Ton


Solution:

(d); ½ Ton = 609 – 207 / 352 = 1.14

1 ton = 459 – 152 / 279 = 1.1

1 ½ ton = 439 – 241 / 338 = 0.58

2 ton= 418 – 253 / 332 = 0.49


Question 26

Directions for Qs. 48 – 52: Read the following information, graph and table and answer the questions that follow. 

Ellen Inc. is a Mumbai based company which sells five products branded as A, B, C, D and E in India. Anita looks after entire sales of North India working from regional office in Delhi. She was preparing for annual review meeting scheduled next day in Mumbai. She was attempting to analyse sales in North India for the seven year period from 2009 to 2015. She first calculated average sales in rupees of all the five brands and constructed a table exhibiting the difference between average sales of each pair of brands as shown in the following table: 

(Check the table from your question paper)

After taking a print out of the above table, she attempted to look at the trend of sales and plotted a graph in MS Excel. Later she took a print out of the graph and left for a meeting. While on her way she figured out that due to some printer cartridge problem sales of Product A in 2013, Product C in 2010, and Product D in 2012 were not visible in the graph as reproduced below. Anita had to make some quick calculation to arrive at the information outlined in the following questions:

(Check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

What are the sales of Product A in 2013, Product C in 2010 and Product D in 2012?

a. Rs. 550 Crores, Rs. 800 Crores and Rs. 500 Crores

b. Rs. 500 Crores, Rs. 700 Crores and Rs. 600 Crores

c. Rs. 500 Crores, Rs. 800 Crores and Rs. 600 Crores

D. Rs. 400 Crores, Rs. 800 Crores and Rs. 600 Crores

 


Solution:

48 – 52: Considering price of 1 unit for all products in all the years is Rs. 10000 this questions can be solved as follows.

 

(c); From the trend of sales graph we can find out average sales of

Product B = (300 + 600 + 600 + 1000 + 1000 + 700 + 1600) / 7 = 828.57

So, from table we can find out average sales of all the product

Average sales of product A = 828.57 + 214. 29 = 1042.86

Average sales of product C = 1042.86 + 128.57 = 1171.43

Average sales of product D = 1042.86 – 142.86 = 900

Average sales of product E = 1042.86 – 42.86 = 1000

 

Therefore Total sales of product A = 1042.86 x 7 = 7300

Total sales of product C = 1171.43 x 7 = 8200

Total sales of product D = 900 x 7 = 6300

Total sales of product E = 1000 x 7 = 7000

Sales of A in 2013 = 7300 – 6800 (from IInd graph) = 500

Sales of C in 2010 = 8200 – 7400 (from IInd graph) = 800

Sales of D in 2012 = 6300 – 5700 (from IInd graph) = 600.


Question 27

Directions for Qs. 48 – 52: Read the following information, graph and table and answer the questions that follow. 

Ellen Inc. is a Mumbai based company which sells five products branded as A, B, C, D and E in India. Anita looks after entire sales of North India working from regional office in Delhi. She was preparing for annual review meeting scheduled next day in Mumbai. She was attempting to analyse sales in North India for the seven year period from 2009 to 2015. She first calculated average sales in rupees of all the five brands and constructed a table exhibiting the difference between average sales of each pair of brands as shown in the following table: 

(Check the table from your question paper)

After taking a print out of the above table, she attempted to look at the trend of sales and plotted a graph in MS Excel. Later she took a print out of the graph and left for a meeting. While on her way she figured out that due to some printer cartridge problem sales of Product A in 2013, Product C in 2010, and Product D in 2012 were not visible in the graph as reproduced below. Anita had to make some quick calculation to arrive at the information outlined in the following questions:

(Check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

Annual sales average of all products in the least in which year?

a. 2010

b. 2011

c. 2012

d. 2013

 


Solution:

(b); We can calculate total sales from IInd graph for each year

In 2010 = 4700, 2011 = 4200, 2012 = 4500, 2013 = 4400 it is least in year 2011.


Question 28

Directions for Qs. 48 – 52: Read the following information, graph and table and answer the questions that follow. 

Ellen Inc. is a Mumbai based company which sells five products branded as A, B, C, D and E in India. Anita looks after entire sales of North India working from regional office in Delhi. She was preparing for annual review meeting scheduled next day in Mumbai. She was attempting to analyse sales in North India for the seven year period from 2009 to 2015. She first calculated average sales in rupees of all the five brands and constructed a table exhibiting the difference between average sales of each pair of brands as shown in the following table: 

(Check the table from your question paper)

After taking a print out of the above table, she attempted to look at the trend of sales and plotted a graph in MS Excel. Later she took a print out of the graph and left for a meeting. While on her way she figured out that due to some printer cartridge problem sales of Product A in 2013, Product C in 2010, and Product D in 2012 were not visible in the graph as reproduced below. Anita had to make some quick calculation to arrive at the information outlined in the following questions:

(Check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

Which product has the least average sales for the seven year period 2009-15?

a. Product A

b. Product B

c. Product D

d. Product E

 


Solution:

(b); Least average sales in for product B 828.57.


Question 29

Directions for Qs. 48 – 52: Read the following information, graph and table and answer the questions that follow. 

Ellen Inc. is a Mumbai based company which sells five products branded as A, B, C, D and E in India. Anita looks after entire sales of North India working from regional office in Delhi. She was preparing for annual review meeting scheduled next day in Mumbai. She was attempting to analyse sales in North India for the seven year period from 2009 to 2015. She first calculated average sales in rupees of all the five brands and constructed a table exhibiting the difference between average sales of each pair of brands as shown in the following table: 

(Check the table from your question paper)

After taking a print out of the above table, she attempted to look at the trend of sales and plotted a graph in MS Excel. Later she took a print out of the graph and left for a meeting. While on her way she figured out that due to some printer cartridge problem sales of Product A in 2013, Product C in 2010, and Product D in 2012 were not visible in the graph as reproduced below. Anita had to make some quick calculation to arrive at the information outlined in the following questions:

(Check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

The difference between average sales of products for the period 2009-15 is the least for which pair of products?

a. Product A and Product B

b. Product B and Product C

c. Product C and Product D

d. Product D and Product E

 


Solution:

(d); Least difference is for product D & E = 1000 – 900 = 100


Question 30

Directions for Qs. 48 – 52: Read the following information, graph and table and answer the questions that follow. 

Ellen Inc. is a Mumbai based company which sells five products branded as A, B, C, D and E in India. Anita looks after entire sales of North India working from regional office in Delhi. She was preparing for annual review meeting scheduled next day in Mumbai. She was attempting to analyse sales in North India for the seven year period from 2009 to 2015. She first calculated average sales in rupees of all the five brands and constructed a table exhibiting the difference between average sales of each pair of brands as shown in the following table: 

(Check the table from your question paper)

After taking a print out of the above table, she attempted to look at the trend of sales and plotted a graph in MS Excel. Later she took a print out of the graph and left for a meeting. While on her way she figured out that due to some printer cartridge problem sales of Product A in 2013, Product C in 2010, and Product D in 2012 were not visible in the graph as reproduced below. Anita had to make some quick calculation to arrive at the information outlined in the following questions:

(Check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

If Year on Year (YOY) Growth

{Current Year Sales – Previous Year Sales / Previous Year Sales}      

then the YoY growth of combined sales of all products has suffered maximum decline in which year?

a. 2010

b. 2011

c. 2013

d. 2015


Solution:

(b); Combined sales for year

2009 – 4900

2010 – 4700

2011 – 4200

2012 – 4500

2013 – 4400

2014 – 4700

2015 – 6000

It can be seen that in year 2015 combined sales has increased & In 2010 YoY = – 200 / 4900 = -0.04 2011 = – 500 / 4700 = -0.10

2013 = – 100 / 4500 = – 0.02

It is maximum decline in year 2011


Question 31

Directions for Qs. 53 – 56: Read the following information and graph, and answer the question that follow. 

An International Organisation produces a Competitive Index of countries every two years based on eight factors (Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic Environment, Higher Education, Market Efficiency, Technological Readiness, Business Sophistication and innovation). The last three indices were developed in 2015, 2012 and 2014. The scores for all eight factors of XYZ country are shown in the graph below:

(Please check graph from your question paper)

Question:

If Factor performance is measured as 0.30 x Factor Score in 2014 + 0.35 x Factor Score in 2012 + 0.35 x Factor Score in 2010, then which of the following has best Factor Performance?

a. Innovation

b. Business Sophistication

c. Infrastructure

d. Macroeconomic Environment

 


Solution:

(d); For Innovation = 0.3 x 4.5 + 0.35 x 4 + 0.35 x 4.75 = 4.4125

Business Sophistication = 0.3 x 5.25 + 0.35 x 4.75 + 0.35 x 4.5 = 4.8125

Infrastructure = 0.3 x 5.25 + 0.35 x 4 + 0.35 x 4 = 4.375

Macroeconomic Environment = 0.3 x 5.5 + 0.35 x 4.5 + 0.35 x 4.75 = 4.8875.


Question 32

Directions for Qs. 53 – 56: Read the following information and graph, and answer the question that follow. 

An International Organisation produces a Competitive Index of countries every two years based on eight factors (Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic Environment, Higher Education, Market Efficiency, Technological Readiness, Business Sophistication and innovation). The last three indices were developed in 2015, 2012 and 2014. The scores for all eight factors of XYZ country are shown in the graph below:

(Please check graph from your question paper)

Question:

If Factor Performance is measured as

{Factor Score 2014-Factor Score 2012/Factor Score 2010}

Then which of the following has best Factor Performance?

a. Innovation

b. Business Sophistication

c. Infrastructure

d. Macroeconomic Environment

 


Solution:

(c); Innovation= 4.5 – 4 / 4.75 = 0.105

B. S. = 5.25 – 4.75 / 4.5 = 0.11

Infra = 5.25 – 4 / 4 = 0.312

Macro Environment = 5.5 – 4.5 / 4.75 = 0.210.


Question 33

Directions for Qs. 53 – 56: Read the following information and graph, and answer the question that follow. 

An International Organisation produces a Competitive Index of countries every two years based on eight factors (Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic Environment, Higher Education, Market Efficiency, Technological Readiness, Business Sophistication and innovation). The last three indices were developed in 2015, 2012 and 2014. The scores for all eight factors of XYZ country are shown in the graph below:

(Please check graph from your question paper)

Question:

Which of the following factors has the highest average score across indices of 2010, 2012 and 2014?

a. Infrastructure

b. Institutions

c. Technological Readiness

d. Market Efficiency

 


Solution:

(b); For Infra = 5.25 + 4 + 4 / 3 = 4.416

Institution = 4.5 + 4.75 + 4.25 / 3 = 4.5

Tech Readiness = 5.5 + 3.75 + 3.5 / 3 = 4.25

Market Efficient = 4.25 + 4.5 + 4.25 / 3 = 4.33.


Question 34

Directions for Qs. 53 – 56: Read the following information and graph, and answer the question that follow. 

An International Organisation produces a Competitive Index of countries every two years based on eight factors (Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic Environment, Higher Education, Market Efficiency, Technological Readiness, Business Sophistication and innovation). The last three indices were developed in 2015, 2012 and 2014. The scores for all eight factors of XYZ country are shown in the graph below:

(Please check graph from your question paper)

Question:

Which among the following factors had the least growth rate in 2014 versus scores of 2010?

a. Business Sophistication

b. Institutions

c. Technological Readiness

d. Infrastructure


Solution:

(b); For B.S. = (5.25 – 4.5 / 4.5) x 100 = 16.66%

Inst = (4.5 – 4.25 / 4.25) x 100 = 5.88%

Tech. Readiness = (5.5 – 3.5 / 3.5) x 100 = 57.14%

Infra = (5.25 – 4 / 4) x 100 = 31.25

Least is for Institution.


Question 35

Directions for Qs. 57 – 60: Read the following information and the accompanying graphs to answer the question that follow. 

www.jay.com spent $ 5,57,000 during last 12 months for online display advertisements, also called impressions, on five websites (Website A, Website B, Website C, Website D and Website E). In this arrangement, www.jay.com is the Destination Site, and the five websites are referred to as the Ad Sites. The allocation of online display advertising expenditure is shown in Graph A. the online display advertisements helped www.jay.com to get visitors on its site. Online visitors, visiting the Ad Sites, are served display advertisements of www.jay.com and on clicking they land on the Destination Site (Graph B). once on the Destinatino Site, some of the visitors complete the purchase process (Graph C).

(Please check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

Which of following Ad Sites provide facility of least cost per advertisement?

a. Website A

b. Website B

c. Website D

d. Website E

 


Solution:

(c); Cost per ad = Allocated Expenditure / No. of Impressions

A = (27 x 557000) / (100 x 240000) = .626

B = (22 x 557000) / (100 x 370000) = .331

D = (13 x 557000) / (100 x 300000) = .241

E = (20 x 557000) / (100 x 150000) = .742


Question 36

Directions for Qs. 57 – 60: Read the following information and the accompanying graphs to answer the question that follow. 

www.jay.com spent $ 5,57,000 during last 12 months for online display advertisements, also called impressions, on five websites (Website A, Website B, Website C, Website D and Website E). In this arrangement, www.jay.com is the Destination Site, and the five websites are referred to as the Ad Sites. The allocation of online display advertising expenditure is shown in Graph A. the online display advertisements helped www.jay.com to get visitors on its site. Online visitors, visiting the Ad Sites, are served display advertisements of www.jay.com and on clicking they land on the Destination Site (Graph B). once on the Destinatino Site, some of the visitors complete the purchase process (Graph C).

(Please check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

Which Ad Site has provided maximum quality traffic?

a. Website A

b. Website B

c. Website D

d. Website E

 


Solution:

(d); For A = 2800 / 120000 = 0.23

B = 2500 / 60000 = 0.41

D = 3000 / 80000 = 0.37

E = 3500 / 40000 = 0.875

Maximum is for E.


Question 37

Directions for Qs. 57 – 60: Read the following information and the accompanying graphs to answer the question that follow. 

www.jay.com spent $ 5,57,000 during last 12 months for online display advertisements, also called impressions, on five websites (Website A, Website B, Website C, Website D and Website E). In this arrangement, www.jay.com is the Destination Site, and the five websites are referred to as the Ad Sites. The allocation of online display advertising expenditure is shown in Graph A. the online display advertisements helped www.jay.com to get visitors on its site. Online visitors, visiting the Ad Sites, are served display advertisements of www.jay.com and on clicking they land on the Destination Site (Graph B). once on the Destinatino Site, some of the visitors complete the purchase process (Graph C).

(Please check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

Which Ad Site sent traffic to www.jay.com with maximum leakage?

a. Website B

b. Website C

c. Website D

d. Website E

 


Solution:

(c); For B = 1 – 1200 / 2500 = 0.52

C = 1 – 900 / 2000 = 0.55

D = 1 – 1300 / 3000 = 0.57

E = 1 – 1600 / 3500 = 0.55.


Question 38

Directions for Qs. 57 – 60: Read the following information and the accompanying graphs to answer the question that follow. 

www.jay.com spent $ 5,57,000 during last 12 months for online display advertisements, also called impressions, on five websites (Website A, Website B, Website C, Website D and Website E). In this arrangement, www.jay.com is the Destination Site, and the five websites are referred to as the Ad Sites. The allocation of online display advertising expenditure is shown in Graph A. the online display advertisements helped www.jay.com to get visitors on its site. Online visitors, visiting the Ad Sites, are served display advertisements of www.jay.com and on clicking they land on the Destination Site (Graph B). once on the Destinatino Site, some of the visitors complete the purchase process (Graph C).

(Please check the graph from your question paper)

Question:

On which Ad Site is the advertising budget spent most efficiently?

a. Website A

b. Website B

c. Website C

d. Website E


Solution:

(a); For A = 2600 / (.27 x 557000) = 0.17

B = 1200 / (.22 x 557000) = .009

C = 900 / (.18 x 557000) = .0089

E = 1600 / (.20 x 557000) = .0014.


VA
Question 1

Directions for questions 1-16: Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

Passage 1

Because of the critical role played by steel in economic development, the steel industry is often considered, especially by the governments, which traditionally owned it, to be an indicator of economic prowess. World production has grown exponentially, but there were big highs and equally big lows all through the 1900s and up to 2002. Recovery from the two World Wars and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused massive disruption and lay-offs. Over-capacity and low steel prices continued to play havoc through the 1970s and 1980s and politicians began to lose their belief that the wealth of a nation was directly coupled to its steel production.

This led to a wave of privatisations, as state-owned enterprises shed their financial liabilities to hungry capitalists. A whole new breed of steel-makers came into being using a new technology, the mini-mill. This used a smaller electric-arc furnace fed that just melts down 'cold' scrap. It was a cheaper process than the traditional 'hot metal integrated mills' with their mountains of ore and coal and monumental machinery, but it was used almost exclusively for lower-grade building and other 'long' products.

By the beginning of 2005, the world steel industry was on a high, after decades of moving from apocalypse to break-even and then back to apocalypse. Since 2003, when a staggering 960 million tonnes were produced – compared to 21.9 million tonnes for aluminium – there had been unprecedented demand, mainly from China and India. China was both the biggest producer, the first country to exceed 200 million tonnes of crude steel in a year, and also its biggest consumer at 244 million tonnes. The global economy was also booming, but this was creating production bottlenecks for all steel-makers and by 2004 steel had for the first time hit an average of $650 per tonne shipped. Profit margins were better, but where was the growth to come from? In tandem, the costs of essential raw materials for steel-making – iron ore and coking coal – had gone through the roof, along with bulk shipping costs. The key to future growth was to secure plants in emerging markets where ore and coal were close to production sites, labour costs were much lower and where technology and investment could spur greater savings.

But the central issue was that globally the industry remained a very fragmented one. No single company was producing 100 million tonnes a year, or 10 per cent of total world production. The name of the game was consolidation into fewer, bigger players. With this would come the chance for steel-makers to gain greater pricing power, increasing their profitability and the value of their shares.


Two groups had L?egun to move ahead of the pack. One was Mittal Steel with its operational headquarters in London's prestigious Berkeley Square. Mittal Steel was the world's biggest producer of 'long' products. It was young, aggressive, fast, and a big risk-taker, fuelled by its founder Lakshmi Mittal's visionary zeal to consolidate the industry. It's nearest rival, Arcelor – the world's most profitable steel company, focusing on 'flat' products – was headed by the Frenchman Guy Dolle, and was a combination of three former state-owned European steel plants: Arbed of Luxembourg, Usinor from France and Spain's Aceralia. These three were now merged, restructured and administered from the grandiose, chateau-like former Arbed headquarters in Luxembourg's Avenue de la Liberte.

Both groups were passionate about steel. Mittal, already dubbed 'the Carnegie from Calcutta', had a clearer vision of the need to streamline steel, but Arcelor was determined to become the biggest as well as the best. Dominating the market would enable either firm to increase its pricing position with customers, the car-makers, ship-builders and construction firms, as well as chasing growth in the new markets of Asia, South America and Eastern Europe.

Guy Dolle could hear the clump of Mittal's feet marching ahead, and it hurt. Arcelor was Europe's reigning steel champion and was arrogantly proud of it. It had a commanding market share of the specialised high-strength steel supplied to European car-makers and a total overall production approaching 50 million tonnes a year, all with state-of-the-art technology. The group had repaired its consolidated balance sheet, ravished by decades of downturns and continual restructuring costs. It had invested heavily in the quest for best technology and had also acquired companies in Brazil, set up joint ventures in Russia, Japan and China and now was eagerly eyeing gateways to the North American car market. And to its long-suffering shareholders, starved of decent dividends, Arcelor was at last moving in the right direction, after the blood, sweat and tears of shifting from public to private sector. The Luxembourg group was clearly on a wake-up call, gunning to overtake Mittal Steel and keep it at bay.

By 2005, the battle for supremacy had begun to heat up. Two projected state sell-offs by public auction, in Turkey and Ukraine, were particularly attractive commercially. Both auctions were taking place in October, within three weeks of each other. The first, in Turkey, was for the 46.3 percent of government-owned shares in Erdemir, a steel-maker producing 3.5 million tonnes a year for car-makers and other industrial clients in a country of seventy million people shaping up to join the European Union. Mittal and Arcelor both already owned minority stakes in the Turkish company and were eager to get majority control.

Question:

Which of the following statements is true?

A. In 2003, China consumed more steel than it produced

B. Mittal Steel was the world's most profitable steel company in mid 2000s

C. Arcelor was a bigger producer of steel than Mittal

D. All of the above


Solution:

(a); Exp. Refer Para 3 line 4 “ China was both the biggest producer…..”

Production 200 million tonnes

Consumption 244 million tones

B – This is a contradiction of what is given in Para 5 line 4 “ Arcelor – the world’s most profitable steel company”

C – No such comparison given in the passage.


Question 2

Directions for questions 1-16: Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

Passage 1

Because of the critical role played by steel in economic development, the steel industry is often considered, especially by the governments, which traditionally owned it, to be an indicator of economic prowess. World production has grown exponentially, but there were big highs and equally big lows all through the 1900s and up to 2002. Recovery from the two World Wars and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused massive disruption and lay-offs. Over-capacity and low steel prices continued to play havoc through the 1970s and 1980s and politicians began to lose their belief that the wealth of a nation was directly coupled to its steel production.

This led to a wave of privatisations, as state-owned enterprises shed their financial liabilities to hungry capitalists. A whole new breed of steel-makers came into being using a new technology, the mini-mill. This used a smaller electric-arc furnace fed that just melts down 'cold' scrap. It was a cheaper process than the traditional 'hot metal integrated mills' with their mountains of ore and coal and monumental machinery, but it was used almost exclusively for lower-grade building and other 'long' products.

By the beginning of 2005, the world steel industry was on a high, after decades of moving from apocalypse to break-even and then back to apocalypse. Since 2003, when a staggering 960 million tonnes were produced – compared to 21.9 million tonnes for aluminium – there had been unprecedented demand, mainly from China and India. China was both the biggest producer, the first country to exceed 200 million tonnes of crude steel in a year, and also its biggest consumer at 244 million tonnes. The global economy was also booming, but this was creating production bottlenecks for all steel-makers and by 2004 steel had for the first time hit an average of $650 per tonne shipped. Profit margins were better, but where was the growth to come from? In tandem, the costs of essential raw materials for steel-making – iron ore and coking coal – had gone through the roof, along with bulk shipping costs. The key to future growth was to secure plants in emerging markets where ore and coal were close to production sites, labour costs were much lower and where technology and investment could spur greater savings.

But the central issue was that globally the industry remained a very fragmented one. No single company was producing 100 million tonnes a year, or 10 per cent of total world production. The name of the game was consolidation into fewer, bigger players. With this would come the chance for steel-makers to gain greater pricing power, increasing their profitability and the value of their shares.


Two groups had L?egun to move ahead of the pack. One was Mittal Steel with its operational headquarters in London's prestigious Berkeley Square. Mittal Steel was the world's biggest producer of 'long' products. It was young, aggressive, fast, and a big risk-taker, fuelled by its founder Lakshmi Mittal's visionary zeal to consolidate the industry. It's nearest rival, Arcelor – the world's most profitable steel company, focusing on 'flat' products – was headed by the Frenchman Guy Dolle, and was a combination of three former state-owned European steel plants: Arbed of Luxembourg, Usinor from France and Spain's Aceralia. These three were now merged, restructured and administered from the grandiose, chateau-like former Arbed headquarters in Luxembourg's Avenue de la Liberte.

Both groups were passionate about steel. Mittal, already dubbed 'the Carnegie from Calcutta', had a clearer vision of the need to streamline steel, but Arcelor was determined to become the biggest as well as the best. Dominating the market would enable either firm to increase its pricing position with customers, the car-makers, ship-builders and construction firms, as well as chasing growth in the new markets of Asia, South America and Eastern Europe.

Guy Dolle could hear the clump of Mittal's feet marching ahead, and it hurt. Arcelor was Europe's reigning steel champion and was arrogantly proud of it. It had a commanding market share of the specialised high-strength steel supplied to European car-makers and a total overall production approaching 50 million tonnes a year, all with state-of-the-art technology. The group had repaired its consolidated balance sheet, ravished by decades of downturns and continual restructuring costs. It had invested heavily in the quest for best technology and had also acquired companies in Brazil, set up joint ventures in Russia, Japan and China and now was eagerly eyeing gateways to the North American car market. And to its long-suffering shareholders, starved of decent dividends, Arcelor was at last moving in the right direction, after the blood, sweat and tears of shifting from public to private sector. The Luxembourg group was clearly on a wake-up call, gunning to overtake Mittal Steel and keep it at bay.

By 2005, the battle for supremacy had begun to heat up. Two projected state sell-offs by public auction, in Turkey and Ukraine, were particularly attractive commercially. Both auctions were taking place in October, within three weeks of each other. The first, in Turkey, was for the 46.3 percent of government-owned shares in Erdemir, a steel-maker producing 3.5 million tonnes a year for car-makers and other industrial clients in a country of seventy million people shaping up to join the European Union. Mittal and Arcelor both already owned minority stakes in the Turkish company and were eager to get majority control.

Question:

Which among the following is the common objective both Mittal and Arcelor hatl for

aspiring to become bigger steel-makers?

A.   To consolidate the rather fragmented steel industry

B.   To facilitate privatisation initiatives of the government

C.   To have 10% of the industry share

D.   To increase pricing position with customers


Solution:

(d); The question is to find the common objective of both Mittal and Arcelor.
Option (a): It was the objective of Mr. Mittal (Para 5) but it wasn’t the common objective of Arcelor (Para 6 2nd sentence).
Option (b) – It is not their objective to for aspiration.
Option (c) – Though it is mentioned as an example in Para 4, it is not their objective
Option (d) – This is true as it is given as common objective for both. Refer Para 6 sentence 3.
Thus the correct answer is (d).
 


Question 3

Directions for questions 1-16: Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

Passage 1

Because of the critical role played by steel in economic development, the steel industry is often considered, especially by the governments, which traditionally owned it, to be an indicator of economic prowess. World production has grown exponentially, but there were big highs and equally big lows all through the 1900s and up to 2002. Recovery from the two World Wars and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused massive disruption and lay-offs. Over-capacity and low steel prices continued to play havoc through the 1970s and 1980s and politicians began to lose their belief that the wealth of a nation was directly coupled to its steel production.

This led to a wave of privatisations, as state-owned enterprises shed their financial liabilities to hungry capitalists. A whole new breed of steel-makers came into being using a new technology, the mini-mill. This used a smaller electric-arc furnace fed that just melts down 'cold' scrap. It was a cheaper process than the traditional 'hot metal integrated mills' with their mountains of ore and coal and monumental machinery, but it was used almost exclusively for lower-grade building and other 'long' products.

By the beginning of 2005, the world steel industry was on a high, after decades of moving from apocalypse to break-even and then back to apocalypse. Since 2003, when a staggering 960 million tonnes were produced – compared to 21.9 million tonnes for aluminium – there had been unprecedented demand, mainly from China and India. China was both the biggest producer, the first country to exceed 200 million tonnes of crude steel in a year, and also its biggest consumer at 244 million tonnes. The global economy was also booming, but this was creating production bottlenecks for all steel-makers and by 2004 steel had for the first time hit an average of $650 per tonne shipped. Profit margins were better, but where was the growth to come from? In tandem, the costs of essential raw materials for steel-making – iron ore and coking coal – had gone through the roof, along with bulk shipping costs. The key to future growth was to secure plants in emerging markets where ore and coal were close to production sites, labour costs were much lower and where technology and investment could spur greater savings.

But the central issue was that globally the industry remained a very fragmented one. No single company was producing 100 million tonnes a year, or 10 per cent of total world production. The name of the game was consolidation into fewer, bigger players. With this would come the chance for steel-makers to gain greater pricing power, increasing their profitability and the value of their shares.


Two groups had L?egun to move ahead of the pack. One was Mittal Steel with its operational headquarters in London's prestigious Berkeley Square. Mittal Steel was the world's biggest producer of 'long' products. It was young, aggressive, fast, and a big risk-taker, fuelled by its founder Lakshmi Mittal's visionary zeal to consolidate the industry. It's nearest rival, Arcelor – the world's most profitable steel company, focusing on 'flat' products – was headed by the Frenchman Guy Dolle, and was a combination of three former state-owned European steel plants: Arbed of Luxembourg, Usinor from France and Spain's Aceralia. These three were now merged, restructured and administered from the grandiose, chateau-like former Arbed headquarters in Luxembourg's Avenue de la Liberte.

Both groups were passionate about steel. Mittal, already dubbed 'the Carnegie from Calcutta', had a clearer vision of the need to streamline steel, but Arcelor was determined to become the biggest as well as the best. Dominating the market would enable either firm to increase its pricing position with customers, the car-makers, ship-builders and construction firms, as well as chasing growth in the new markets of Asia, South America and Eastern Europe.

Guy Dolle could hear the clump of Mittal's feet marching ahead, and it hurt. Arcelor was Europe's reigning steel champion and was arrogantly proud of it. It had a commanding market share of the specialised high-strength steel supplied to European car-makers and a total overall production approaching 50 million tonnes a year, all with state-of-the-art technology. The group had repaired its consolidated balance sheet, ravished by decades of downturns and continual restructuring costs. It had invested heavily in the quest for best technology and had also acquired companies in Brazil, set up joint ventures in Russia, Japan and China and now was eagerly eyeing gateways to the North American car market. And to its long-suffering shareholders, starved of decent dividends, Arcelor was at last moving in the right direction, after the blood, sweat and tears of shifting from public to private sector. The Luxembourg group was clearly on a wake-up call, gunning to overtake Mittal Steel and keep it at bay.

By 2005, the battle for supremacy had begun to heat up. Two projected state sell-offs by public auction, in Turkey and Ukraine, were particularly attractive commercially. Both auctions were taking place in October, within three weeks of each other. The first, in Turkey, was for the 46.3 percent of government-owned shares in Erdemir, a steel-maker producing 3.5 million tonnes a year for car-makers and other industrial clients in a country of seventy million people shaping up to join the European Union. Mittal and Arcelor both already owned minority stakes in the Turkish company and were eager to get majority control.

Question:

From the above passages, it clearly emerges that:

A.   Arcleor had delivered good returns to its shareholders

B.   Mittal Steel was Arcelor's nearest competitor

C.   By 2005, steel industry was in recession

       D.   A nation's steel production continues to be a good indicator of its wealth


Solution:

(b); Exp. Refer Para 5 line 4 when author talks about Mittal and continues “its nearest rival, Arcelor….”

A – Contradictory refer Para 7 line 8 “and to its long – suffering shareholders….”

C – Can’t be inferred.

D. The word “continues” contradicts the Para 1.


Question 4

Directions for questions 1-16: Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

Passage 1

Because of the critical role played by steel in economic development, the steel industry is often considered, especially by the governments, which traditionally owned it, to be an indicator of economic prowess. World production has grown exponentially, but there were big highs and equally big lows all through the 1900s and up to 2002. Recovery from the two World Wars and the Great Depression of the 1930s caused massive disruption and lay-offs. Over-capacity and low steel prices continued to play havoc through the 1970s and 1980s and politicians began to lose their belief that the wealth of a nation was directly coupled to its steel production.

This led to a wave of privatisations, as state-owned enterprises shed their financial liabilities to hungry capitalists. A whole new breed of steel-makers came into being using a new technology, the mini-mill. This used a smaller electric-arc furnace fed that just melts down 'cold' scrap. It was a cheaper process than the traditional 'hot metal integrated mills' with their mountains of ore and coal and monumental machinery, but it was used almost exclusively for lower-grade building and other 'long' products.

By the beginning of 2005, the world steel industry was on a high, after decades of moving from apocalypse to break-even and then back to apocalypse. Since 2003, when a staggering 960 million tonnes were produced – compared to 21.9 million tonnes for aluminium – there had been unprecedented demand, mainly from China and India. China was both the biggest producer, the first country to exceed 200 million tonnes of crude steel in a year, and also its biggest consumer at 244 million tonnes. The global economy was also booming, but this was creating production bottlenecks for all steel-makers and by 2004 steel had for the first time hit an average of $650 per tonne shipped. Profit margins were better, but where was the growth to come from? In tandem, the costs of essential raw materials for steel-making – iron ore and coking coal – had gone through the roof, along with bulk shipping costs. The key to future growth was to secure plants in emerging markets where ore and coal were close to production sites, labour costs were much lower and where technology and investment could spur greater savings.

But the central issue was that globally the industry remained a very fragmented one. No single company was producing 100 million tonnes a year, or 10 per cent of total world production. The name of the game was consolidation into fewer, bigger players. With this would come the chance for steel-makers to gain greater pricing power, increasing their profitability and the value of their shares.


Two groups had L?egun to move ahead of the pack. One was Mittal Steel with its operational headquarters in London's prestigious Berkeley Square. Mittal Steel was the world's biggest producer of 'long' products. It was young, aggressive, fast, and a big risk-taker, fuelled by its founder Lakshmi Mittal's visionary zeal to consolidate the industry. It's nearest rival, Arcelor – the world's most profitable steel company, focusing on 'flat' products – was headed by the Frenchman Guy Dolle, and was a combination of three former state-owned European steel plants: Arbed of Luxembourg, Usinor from France and Spain's Aceralia. These three were now merged, restructured and administered from the grandiose, chateau-like former Arbed headquarters in Luxembourg's Avenue de la Liberte.

Both groups were passionate about steel. Mittal, already dubbed 'the Carnegie from Calcutta', had a clearer vision of the need to streamline steel, but Arcelor was determined to become the biggest as well as the best. Dominating the market would enable either firm to increase its pricing position with customers, the car-makers, ship-builders and construction firms, as well as chasing growth in the new markets of Asia, South America and Eastern Europe.

Guy Dolle could hear the clump of Mittal's feet marching ahead, and it hurt. Arcelor was Europe's reigning steel champion and was arrogantly proud of it. It had a commanding market share of the specialised high-strength steel supplied to European car-makers and a total overall production approaching 50 million tonnes a year, all with state-of-the-art technology. The group had repaired its consolidated balance sheet, ravished by decades of downturns and continual restructuring costs. It had invested heavily in the quest for best technology and had also acquired companies in Brazil, set up joint ventures in Russia, Japan and China and now was eagerly eyeing gateways to the North American car market. And to its long-suffering shareholders, starved of decent dividends, Arcelor was at last moving in the right direction, after the blood, sweat and tears of shifting from public to private sector. The Luxembourg group was clearly on a wake-up call, gunning to overtake Mittal Steel and keep it at bay.

By 2005, the battle for supremacy had begun to heat up. Two projected state sell-offs by public auction, in Turkey and Ukraine, were particularly attractive commercially. Both auctions were taking place in October, within three weeks of each other. The first, in Turkey, was for the 46.3 percent of government-owned shares in Erdemir, a steel-maker producing 3.5 million tonnes a year for car-makers and other industrial clients in a country of seventy million people shaping up to join the European Union. Mittal and Arcelor both already owned minority stakes in the Turkish company and were eager to get majority control.

Question:

What are the plausible reasons for privatisation in steel industry?

A.   Slow growth in world production

B.   Lobbying by the capitalists

C.   Havoc played by over-capacity and falling steel prices

D.   Introduction of the 'mini-mill'


Solution:

(c); Exp. Directly given in Para 1 line 6 “Over-capacity and low steel prices continued to play havoc….

Para 2 line 1 “this led to a wave of privatizations…..’.

Passage 2 (In the decades that otlet’s….)


Question 5

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage 2

In the decades that Otlet's papers had sat gathering dust, his dream of a universal knowledge of network had found a new expression across the Atlantic, where a group of engineers and computer scientists laid the groundwork for what would eventually become the Internet. Beginning during the Cold War, the United States poured money into a series of advanced research projects that would eventually lead to the creation of the technologies underpinning the present-day Internet. In the 1990s, the World Wide Web appeared and quickly attracted a widespread audience, eventually establishing itself as the foundation of a global knowledge-sharing network much like the one that Otlet envisioned.

Today, the emergence of that network has triggered a series of dramatic – perhaps even "axial'' – transformations. In 2011, the world's population generated more than 1.8 zettabytes of data, including documents, images, phone calls, and radio and television signals. More than a billion people now use Web browsers, and that number will almost certainly increase for years to come. In an era when almost anyone with a mobile phone can press a few keys to search the contents of the world's libraries, when millions of people negotiate their personal relationships via online social networks, and when institutions of all stripes find their operajiottwiisrupted by the sometimes wrenching effects of networks, it scarcely seems like 'hyperbole^ and has even become cliche – to suggest that the advent of the Internet ranks as an event of epochal significance.

While Otlet did not by any stretch of imagination "invent" the Internet – working as he did in an age before digital computers, magnetic storage, or packet-switching networks nonetheless his vision looks nothing short of prophetic. In Otlet's day, microfilm may have qualified as the most advanced information storage technology, and the closest thing anyone had ever seen to a database was a drawer full of index cards. Yet despite these analog limitations, he envisioned a global network of interconnected institutions that would alter the flow of information around the world, and in the process lead to profound social, cultural, and political transformations.

By today's standards, Otlet's proto-Web was a clumsy affair, relying on a patchwork system of index cards, file cabinets, telegraph machines, and a small army of clerical workers. But in his writing he looked far ahead to a future in which networks circled the globe and data could travel freely. Moreover, he imagined a wide range of expression taking shape across the network: distributed encyclopaedias, virtual classrooms, three-dimensional information spaces, social networks, and other forms of knowledge that anticipated the hyperlinked structure of today's Web. He saw these developments as fundamentally connected to a larger Utopian project that would bring the world closer to a state of permanent and lasting peace and toward a state of collective spiritual enlightenment.


The conventional history of the Internet traces its roots through an Anglo-American lineage of early computer scientists like Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, and Alan Turing; networking visionaries like Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn; as well as hypertext seers like Vannevar Bush, J.C.R. Licklider, Douglas Engelbart, Ted Nelson, and of course Tin Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau, who in 1991 released their first versior of the World A : Web. The dominant influence of the modern computer industry has placed computer science at the centre of this story.

Nonetheless Otlet's work, grounded in an age before microchips and semiconductors, opened the door to an alternative stream of thought, one undergirding our present-day information age even though it has little to do with the history of digital computing. Well before the first Web servers started sending data packets across the Internet, a number of other early twentieth-century figures were pondering the possibility of a new, networked society: H.G. Wells, the English science fiction writer and social activist, who dreamed of building a World

*

Brain, Emanuel Goldberg, a Russian Jew who invented a fully functional mechanical search engine in 1930s Germany before fleeing the Nazis; Scotland's Patrick Geddes and Austria's Otto Neurath, who both explored new kinds of highly designed, propagandist^ museum exhibits designed to foster social change; Germany's Wilhelm Ostwald, the Nobel Prize-winning chemist who aspired to build a vast new 'brain of humanity'; the sculptor Hendfik Andersen and the architect Le Corbusier, both of whom dreamed of designing a World City to house a new, one-world government with a networked information repository at its epicentre. Each shared a commitment to social transformation through the use of available technologies. They also each shared a direct connection to Paul Otlet, who seems to connect a series of major turning points in the history of the early twentieth-century information age, synthesizing and incorporating their ideas along with his own, and ultimately coming tantalizingly close to building a fully integrated global information network.

Question:

What is the remark that the author of this passage considers a defensible one, rather than a hyperbole?

A. That the number of people who will use Internet will increase for the years to come .

B. That the advent of the Internet is an event of epochal significance

C. That millions of people negotiate their personal relationships via online social networks

D. That more than a billion people now use web browsers


Solution:

(b); Exp. Refer Para 2 penultimate line.


Question 6

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage 2

In the decades that Otlet's papers had sat gathering dust, his dream of a universal knowledge of network had found a new expression across the Atlantic, where a group of engineers and computer scientists laid the groundwork for what would eventually become the Internet. Beginning during the Cold War, the United States poured money into a series of advanced research projects that would eventually lead to the creation of the technologies underpinning the present-day Internet. In the 1990s, the World Wide Web appeared and quickly attracted a widespread audience, eventually establishing itself as the foundation of a global knowledge-sharing network much like the one that Otlet envisioned.

Today, the emergence of that network has triggered a series of dramatic – perhaps even "axial'' – transformations. In 2011, the world's population generated more than 1.8 zettabytes of data, including documents, images, phone calls, and radio and television signals. More than a billion people now use Web browsers, and that number will almost certainly increase for years to come. In an era when almost anyone with a mobile phone can press a few keys to search the contents of the world's libraries, when millions of people negotiate their personal relationships via online social networks, and when institutions of all stripes find their operajiottwiisrupted by the sometimes wrenching effects of networks, it scarcely seems like 'hyperbole^ and has even become cliche – to suggest that the advent of the Internet ranks as an event of epochal significance.

While Otlet did not by any stretch of imagination "invent" the Internet – working as he did in an age before digital computers, magnetic storage, or packet-switching networks nonetheless his vision looks nothing short of prophetic. In Otlet's day, microfilm may have qualified as the most advanced information storage technology, and the closest thing anyone had ever seen to a database was a drawer full of index cards. Yet despite these analog limitations, he envisioned a global network of interconnected institutions that would alter the flow of information around the world, and in the process lead to profound social, cultural, and political transformations.

By today's standards, Otlet's proto-Web was a clumsy affair, relying on a patchwork system of index cards, file cabinets, telegraph machines, and a small army of clerical workers. But in his writing he looked far ahead to a future in which networks circled the globe and data could travel freely. Moreover, he imagined a wide range of expression taking shape across the network: distributed encyclopaedias, virtual classrooms, three-dimensional information spaces, social networks, and other forms of knowledge that anticipated the hyperlinked structure of today's Web. He saw these developments as fundamentally connected to a larger Utopian project that would bring the world closer to a state of permanent and lasting peace and toward a state of collective spiritual enlightenment.


The conventional history of the Internet traces its roots through an Anglo-American lineage of early computer scientists like Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, and Alan Turing; networking visionaries like Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn; as well as hypertext seers like Vannevar Bush, J.C.R. Licklider, Douglas Engelbart, Ted Nelson, and of course Tin Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau, who in 1991 released their first versior of the World A : Web. The dominant influence of the modern computer industry has placed computer science at the centre of this story.

Nonetheless Otlet's work, grounded in an age before microchips and semiconductors, opened the door to an alternative stream of thought, one undergirding our present-day information age even though it has little to do with the history of digital computing. Well before the first Web servers started sending data packets across the Internet, a number of other early twentieth-century figures were pondering the possibility of a new, networked society: H.G. Wells, the English science fiction writer and social activist, who dreamed of building a World

*

Brain, Emanuel Goldberg, a Russian Jew who invented a fully functional mechanical search engine in 1930s Germany before fleeing the Nazis; Scotland's Patrick Geddes and Austria's Otto Neurath, who both explored new kinds of highly designed, propagandist^ museum exhibits designed to foster social change; Germany's Wilhelm Ostwald, the Nobel Prize-winning chemist who aspired to build a vast new 'brain of humanity'; the sculptor Hendfik Andersen and the architect Le Corbusier, both of whom dreamed of designing a World City to house a new, one-world government with a networked information repository at its epicentre. Each shared a commitment to social transformation through the use of available technologies. They also each shared a direct connection to Paul Otlet, who seems to connect a series of major turning points in the history of the early twentieth-century information age, synthesizing and incorporating their ideas along with his own, and ultimately coming tantalizingly close to building a fully integrated global information network.

Question:

In the above passage, Outlet is being credited with

A. Inventing the Internet

B. Co-developing the Internet
C. Trrophesising the Internet

D. All of the above


Solution:

(c); Exp. Refer Para 3 line 1 “nothing short of prophetic”.


Question 7

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage 2

In the decades that Otlet's papers had sat gathering dust, his dream of a universal knowledge of network had found a new expression across the Atlantic, where a group of engineers and computer scientists laid the groundwork for what would eventually become the Internet. Beginning during the Cold War, the United States poured money into a series of advanced research projects that would eventually lead to the creation of the technologies underpinning the present-day Internet. In the 1990s, the World Wide Web appeared and quickly attracted a widespread audience, eventually establishing itself as the foundation of a global knowledge-sharing network much like the one that Otlet envisioned.

Today, the emergence of that network has triggered a series of dramatic – perhaps even "axial'' – transformations. In 2011, the world's population generated more than 1.8 zettabytes of data, including documents, images, phone calls, and radio and television signals. More than a billion people now use Web browsers, and that number will almost certainly increase for years to come. In an era when almost anyone with a mobile phone can press a few keys to search the contents of the world's libraries, when millions of people negotiate their personal relationships via online social networks, and when institutions of all stripes find their operajiottwiisrupted by the sometimes wrenching effects of networks, it scarcely seems like 'hyperbole^ and has even become cliche – to suggest that the advent of the Internet ranks as an event of epochal significance.

While Otlet did not by any stretch of imagination "invent" the Internet – working as he did in an age before digital computers, magnetic storage, or packet-switching networks nonetheless his vision looks nothing short of prophetic. In Otlet's day, microfilm may have qualified as the most advanced information storage technology, and the closest thing anyone had ever seen to a database was a drawer full of index cards. Yet despite these analog limitations, he envisioned a global network of interconnected institutions that would alter the flow of information around the world, and in the process lead to profound social, cultural, and political transformations.

By today's standards, Otlet's proto-Web was a clumsy affair, relying on a patchwork system of index cards, file cabinets, telegraph machines, and a small army of clerical workers. But in his writing he looked far ahead to a future in which networks circled the globe and data could travel freely. Moreover, he imagined a wide range of expression taking shape across the network: distributed encyclopaedias, virtual classrooms, three-dimensional information spaces, social networks, and other forms of knowledge that anticipated the hyperlinked structure of today's Web. He saw these developments as fundamentally connected to a larger Utopian project that would bring the world closer to a state of permanent and lasting peace and toward a state of collective spiritual enlightenment.


The conventional history of the Internet traces its roots through an Anglo-American lineage of early computer scientists like Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, and Alan Turing; networking visionaries like Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn; as well as hypertext seers like Vannevar Bush, J.C.R. Licklider, Douglas Engelbart, Ted Nelson, and of course Tin Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau, who in 1991 released their first versior of the World A : Web. The dominant influence of the modern computer industry has placed computer science at the centre of this story.

Nonetheless Otlet's work, grounded in an age before microchips and semiconductors, opened the door to an alternative stream of thought, one undergirding our present-day information age even though it has little to do with the history of digital computing. Well before the first Web servers started sending data packets across the Internet, a number of other early twentieth-century figures were pondering the possibility of a new, networked society: H.G. Wells, the English science fiction writer and social activist, who dreamed of building a World

*

Brain, Emanuel Goldberg, a Russian Jew who invented a fully functional mechanical search engine in 1930s Germany before fleeing the Nazis; Scotland's Patrick Geddes and Austria's Otto Neurath, who both explored new kinds of highly designed, propagandist^ museum exhibits designed to foster social change; Germany's Wilhelm Ostwald, the Nobel Prize-winning chemist who aspired to build a vast new 'brain of humanity'; the sculptor Hendfik Andersen and the architect Le Corbusier, both of whom dreamed of designing a World City to house a new, one-world government with a networked information repository at its epicentre. Each shared a commitment to social transformation through the use of available technologies. They also each shared a direct connection to Paul Otlet, who seems to connect a series of major turning points in the history of the early twentieth-century information age, synthesizing and incorporating their ideas along with his own, and ultimately coming tantalizingly close to building a fully integrated global information network.

Question:

7.  What has been said as the common commitment shared by the early twentieth-century

figures who imagined and worked for a networked society?

A.   Designing a World City with a networked information repository at its epicentre

B.   Achieving social transformation through the use of available technologies

C.   Building a vast new "Brain of Humanity"

D.         Bringing world peace through online social networks


Solution:

(b); Exp. Refer Para 6 line 14 ”each shared a commitment…..”


Question 8

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage 2

In the decades that Otlet's papers had sat gathering dust, his dream of a universal knowledge of network had found a new expression across the Atlantic, where a group of engineers and computer scientists laid the groundwork for what would eventually become the Internet. Beginning during the Cold War, the United States poured money into a series of advanced research projects that would eventually lead to the creation of the technologies underpinning the present-day Internet. In the 1990s, the World Wide Web appeared and quickly attracted a widespread audience, eventually establishing itself as the foundation of a global knowledge-sharing network much like the one that Otlet envisioned.

Today, the emergence of that network has triggered a series of dramatic – perhaps even "axial'' – transformations. In 2011, the world's population generated more than 1.8 zettabytes of data, including documents, images, phone calls, and radio and television signals. More than a billion people now use Web browsers, and that number will almost certainly increase for years to come. In an era when almost anyone with a mobile phone can press a few keys to search the contents of the world's libraries, when millions of people negotiate their personal relationships via online social networks, and when institutions of all stripes find their operajiottwiisrupted by the sometimes wrenching effects of networks, it scarcely seems like 'hyperbole^ and has even become cliche – to suggest that the advent of the Internet ranks as an event of epochal significance.

While Otlet did not by any stretch of imagination "invent" the Internet – working as he did in an age before digital computers, magnetic storage, or packet-switching networks nonetheless his vision looks nothing short of prophetic. In Otlet's day, microfilm may have qualified as the most advanced information storage technology, and the closest thing anyone had ever seen to a database was a drawer full of index cards. Yet despite these analog limitations, he envisioned a global network of interconnected institutions that would alter the flow of information around the world, and in the process lead to profound social, cultural, and political transformations.

By today's standards, Otlet's proto-Web was a clumsy affair, relying on a patchwork system of index cards, file cabinets, telegraph machines, and a small army of clerical workers. But in his writing he looked far ahead to a future in which networks circled the globe and data could travel freely. Moreover, he imagined a wide range of expression taking shape across the network: distributed encyclopaedias, virtual classrooms, three-dimensional information spaces, social networks, and other forms of knowledge that anticipated the hyperlinked structure of today's Web. He saw these developments as fundamentally connected to a larger Utopian project that would bring the world closer to a state of permanent and lasting peace and toward a state of collective spiritual enlightenment.


The conventional history of the Internet traces its roots through an Anglo-American lineage of early computer scientists like Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, and Alan Turing; networking visionaries like Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn; as well as hypertext seers like Vannevar Bush, J.C.R. Licklider, Douglas Engelbart, Ted Nelson, and of course Tin Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau, who in 1991 released their first versior of the World A : Web. The dominant influence of the modern computer industry has placed computer science at the centre of this story.

Nonetheless Otlet's work, grounded in an age before microchips and semiconductors, opened the door to an alternative stream of thought, one undergirding our present-day information age even though it has little to do with the history of digital computing. Well before the first Web servers started sending data packets across the Internet, a number of other early twentieth-century figures were pondering the possibility of a new, networked society: H.G. Wells, the English science fiction writer and social activist, who dreamed of building a World

*

Brain, Emanuel Goldberg, a Russian Jew who invented a fully functional mechanical search engine in 1930s Germany before fleeing the Nazis; Scotland's Patrick Geddes and Austria's Otto Neurath, who both explored new kinds of highly designed, propagandist^ museum exhibits designed to foster social change; Germany's Wilhelm Ostwald, the Nobel Prize-winning chemist who aspired to build a vast new 'brain of humanity'; the sculptor Hendfik Andersen and the architect Le Corbusier, both of whom dreamed of designing a World City to house a new, one-world government with a networked information repository at its epicentre. Each shared a commitment to social transformation through the use of available technologies. They also each shared a direct connection to Paul Otlet, who seems to connect a series of major turning points in the history of the early twentieth-century information age, synthesizing and incorporating their ideas along with his own, and ultimately coming tantalizingly close to building a fully integrated global information network.

Question:

Outlet's original idea of the network can be described as:

A.   Futuristic

B.   Visionary

C.   Utopian

D.   All of the above


Solution:

(d); All are given in Para 3 and 4.


Question 9

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage-3

Every loan has a lender and a borrower; both voluntarily engage in the transaction. If the loan goes bad, there is at least a prima facie case that the lender is as guilty as the borrower. In fact, since lenders are supposed to be sophisticated in risk analysis and in making judgements about a reasonable debt burden, they should perhaps bear even more culpability.

Does it make a difference if we say there is over-lending rather than over-borrowing? The difference in where we see the problem affects where we seek the solution. Is the problem more on the side of the lenders, that they are not exercising due diligence in judging who is creditworthy? Or on the borrowers, being profligate and irresponsible? If we consider the problem to be over borrowing, then we naturally think of making it more difficult for borrowers to discharge their debts; on the contrary, if the problem is over lending, we focus on strengthening incentives for lenders to exercise due diligence.

The political economy of over-borrowing is easy to understand. The current borrowing government benefits and later governments have to deal with the consequences. But why have sophisticated, profit maximizing lenders so often over-lent? Lenders encourage indebtedness because it is profitable. Developing country governments are sometimes even pressured to over-borrow. There may be kickbacks in loans, or even more frequently in the projects that they finance. Even without corruption, it is easy to be influenced by Western businessmen and financiers. They wine and dine those responsible for borrowing as they sell their loan packages, and tell them why this is a good time to borrow, why their particular package is attractive, why this is the right time to restructure debt? Countries that are not sure that borrowing is worth the risk are told how important it is to establish a credit rating: borrow even if you really don't need the money.

Excessive borrowing increases the chance of a crisis, and the costs of a crisis are borne not just by lenders but by all of society. In recent years, IMF programs may have resulted in significant further distortions in lenders' incentives. When crisis occurred, the IMF lent money in what was called a 'bail-out'- 'but the money was not really a bail-out for the country; it was a bail out for Western banks. In both East Asia and Latin America, bail-outs provided money to repay foreign creditors, thus absolving creditors from having to bear the costs of thejr mistaken lending. In some instances, governments even assumed private liabilities, effectively socializing private risk. The creditors were left off the hook, but the IMF's money wasn't a gift, just another loan- and the developing country was left to pay the bill. In effect, the poor country's taxpayers paid for rich country's lending mistakes.

The bail-outs give rise to the famous^'moral hazard' problem. Moral hazard arises when a party does not bear all the risks associated with his action and as a result does not do everything he can to avoid risk. The term originates in the insurance literature; it was deemed immoral for an individual to take less care in preventing a fire simply because he had insurance coverage. It is, of course, simply a matter of incentives: those with insurance may


not set their houses on fire deliberately, but their incentive to avoid a fire is still weakened. With loans, the risk is default, with all of its consequences; lenders can reduce that risk simply by lending less. If they perceive a high likelihood of a bail-out, they lend more than they otherwise would.

Lending markets are also characterized by, in the famous words of former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan, 'irrational exuberance', as well as irrational pessimism. Lenders rush into a market in a mood of optimism, and rush out when the mood changes. Markets move in fads and fashions, and it is hard to resist joining the latest fad. If only one firm were affected by a mood of irrational optimism, it would have to bear the cost of its mistake; but when large numbers share the same mood, in a fad, there are macro-economic consequences, potentially affecting everyone in the country.

Question:

The author is trying to find the underlying cause of:

A.   Financial crisis in the economy

B.   Under development in the developing world

C.   Bargaining power asymmetry between lenders and borrowers

D.         Inequalities in the world economy


Solution:

(a); Author raises the problem of over-borrowing in first two paragraphs. In third para second sentence, author communicates how it can impact the latter governments. In last sentence of third para, author tells importance of credit ratings for countries which do not realize the risk of over-borrowing. First sentence of fourth para clearly communicates excessive borrowing increases chance of a crisis. Thus (a) comes out as the best answer.


Question 10

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage-3

Every loan has a lender and a borrower; both voluntarily engage in the transaction. If the loan goes bad, there is at least a prima facie case that the lender is as guilty as the borrower. In fact, since lenders are supposed to be sophisticated in risk analysis and in making judgements about a reasonable debt burden, they should perhaps bear even more culpability.

Does it make a difference if we say there is over-lending rather than over-borrowing? The difference in where we see the problem affects where we seek the solution. Is the problem more on the side of the lenders, that they are not exercising due diligence in judging who is creditworthy? Or on the borrowers, being profligate and irresponsible? If we consider the problem to be over borrowing, then we naturally think of making it more difficult for borrowers to discharge their debts; on the contrary, if the problem is over lending, we focus on strengthening incentives for lenders to exercise due diligence.

The political economy of over-borrowing is easy to understand. The current borrowing government benefits and later governments have to deal with the consequences. But why have sophisticated, profit maximizing lenders so often over-lent? Lenders encourage indebtedness because it is profitable. Developing country governments are sometimes even pressured to over-borrow. There may be kickbacks in loans, or even more frequently in the projects that they finance. Even without corruption, it is easy to be influenced by Western businessmen and financiers. They wine and dine those responsible for borrowing as they sell their loan packages, and tell them why this is a good time to borrow, why their particular package is attractive, why this is the right time to restructure debt? Countries that are not sure that borrowing is worth the risk are told how important it is to establish a credit rating: borrow even if you really don't need the money.

Excessive borrowing increases the chance of a crisis, and the costs of a crisis are borne not just by lenders but by all of society. In recent years, IMF programs may have resulted in significant further distortions in lenders' incentives. When crisis occurred, the IMF lent money in what was called a 'bail-out'- 'but the money was not really a bail-out for the country; it was a bail out for Western banks. In both East Asia and Latin America, bail-outs provided money to repay foreign creditors, thus absolving creditors from having to bear the costs of thejr mistaken lending. In some instances, governments even assumed private liabilities, effectively socializing private risk. The creditors were left off the hook, but the IMF's money wasn't a gift, just another loan- and the developing country was left to pay the bill. In effect, the poor country's taxpayers paid for rich country's lending mistakes.

The bail-outs give rise to the famous^'moral hazard' problem. Moral hazard arises when a party does not bear all the risks associated with his action and as a result does not do everything he can to avoid risk. The term originates in the insurance literature; it was deemed immoral for an individual to take less care in preventing a fire simply because he had insurance coverage. It is, of course, simply a matter of incentives: those with insurance may


not set their houses on fire deliberately, but their incentive to avoid a fire is still weakened. With loans, the risk is default, with all of its consequences; lenders can reduce that risk simply by lending less. If they perceive a high likelihood of a bail-out, they lend more than they otherwise would.

Lending markets are also characterized by, in the famous words of former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan, 'irrational exuberance', as well as irrational pessimism. Lenders rush into a market in a mood of optimism, and rush out when the mood changes. Markets move in fads and fashions, and it is hard to resist joining the latest fad. If only one firm were affected by a mood of irrational optimism, it would have to bear the cost of its mistake; but when large numbers share the same mood, in a fad, there are macro-economic consequences, potentially affecting everyone in the country.

Question:

The 'moral hazard' arises because:

A.   The insured takes less precaution to avoid a risk because the risk is covered by
insurance

B.   The insured takes less precaution to avoid a risk because he is unaware about the
risk

C.   The insured takes less precaution to avoid risk because he tends to benefit from
the risk

D.         The amount spent on insurance is seen as a waste because the risk is unlikely or
minimum


Solution:

(a); Refer Para 5.


Question 11

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage-3

Every loan has a lender and a borrower; both voluntarily engage in the transaction. If the loan goes bad, there is at least a prima facie case that the lender is as guilty as the borrower. In fact, since lenders are supposed to be sophisticated in risk analysis and in making judgements about a reasonable debt burden, they should perhaps bear even more culpability.

Does it make a difference if we say there is over-lending rather than over-borrowing? The difference in where we see the problem affects where we seek the solution. Is the problem more on the side of the lenders, that they are not exercising due diligence in judging who is creditworthy? Or on the borrowers, being profligate and irresponsible? If we consider the problem to be over borrowing, then we naturally think of making it more difficult for borrowers to discharge their debts; on the contrary, if the problem is over lending, we focus on strengthening incentives for lenders to exercise due diligence.

The political economy of over-borrowing is easy to understand. The current borrowing government benefits and later governments have to deal with the consequences. But why have sophisticated, profit maximizing lenders so often over-lent? Lenders encourage indebtedness because it is profitable. Developing country governments are sometimes even pressured to over-borrow. There may be kickbacks in loans, or even more frequently in the projects that they finance. Even without corruption, it is easy to be influenced by Western businessmen and financiers. They wine and dine those responsible for borrowing as they sell their loan packages, and tell them why this is a good time to borrow, why their particular package is attractive, why this is the right time to restructure debt? Countries that are not sure that borrowing is worth the risk are told how important it is to establish a credit rating: borrow even if you really don't need the money.

Excessive borrowing increases the chance of a crisis, and the costs of a crisis are borne not just by lenders but by all of society. In recent years, IMF programs may have resulted in significant further distortions in lenders' incentives. When crisis occurred, the IMF lent money in what was called a 'bail-out'- 'but the money was not really a bail-out for the country; it was a bail out for Western banks. In both East Asia and Latin America, bail-outs provided money to repay foreign creditors, thus absolving creditors from having to bear the costs of thejr mistaken lending. In some instances, governments even assumed private liabilities, effectively socializing private risk. The creditors were left off the hook, but the IMF's money wasn't a gift, just another loan- and the developing country was left to pay the bill. In effect, the poor country's taxpayers paid for rich country's lending mistakes.

The bail-outs give rise to the famous^'moral hazard' problem. Moral hazard arises when a party does not bear all the risks associated with his action and as a result does not do everything he can to avoid risk. The term originates in the insurance literature; it was deemed immoral for an individual to take less care in preventing a fire simply because he had insurance coverage. It is, of course, simply a matter of incentives: those with insurance may


not set their houses on fire deliberately, but their incentive to avoid a fire is still weakened. With loans, the risk is default, with all of its consequences; lenders can reduce that risk simply by lending less. If they perceive a high likelihood of a bail-out, they lend more than they otherwise would.

Lending markets are also characterized by, in the famous words of former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan, 'irrational exuberance', as well as irrational pessimism. Lenders rush into a market in a mood of optimism, and rush out when the mood changes. Markets move in fads and fashions, and it is hard to resist joining the latest fad. If only one firm were affected by a mood of irrational optimism, it would have to bear the cost of its mistake; but when large numbers share the same mood, in a fad, there are macro-economic consequences, potentially affecting everyone in the country.

Question:

According to the author the IMF bail-outs for the countries in crisis have been in
effect:

A.  The bail-out for the governments of the borrowing countries

B.   The bail-out for the banks in the borrowing country

C.   The bail-out for the lending foreign banks

D.  The bail out for the governments of the countries of the creditors


Solution:

(c); Exp. Refer Para 4 line 3 “when crisis occurred,…”


Question 12

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage-3

Every loan has a lender and a borrower; both voluntarily engage in the transaction. If the loan goes bad, there is at least a prima facie case that the lender is as guilty as the borrower. In fact, since lenders are supposed to be sophisticated in risk analysis and in making judgements about a reasonable debt burden, they should perhaps bear even more culpability.

Does it make a difference if we say there is over-lending rather than over-borrowing? The difference in where we see the problem affects where we seek the solution. Is the problem more on the side of the lenders, that they are not exercising due diligence in judging who is creditworthy? Or on the borrowers, being profligate and irresponsible? If we consider the problem to be over borrowing, then we naturally think of making it more difficult for borrowers to discharge their debts; on the contrary, if the problem is over lending, we focus on strengthening incentives for lenders to exercise due diligence.

The political economy of over-borrowing is easy to understand. The current borrowing government benefits and later governments have to deal with the consequences. But why have sophisticated, profit maximizing lenders so often over-lent? Lenders encourage indebtedness because it is profitable. Developing country governments are sometimes even pressured to over-borrow. There may be kickbacks in loans, or even more frequently in the projects that they finance. Even without corruption, it is easy to be influenced by Western businessmen and financiers. They wine and dine those responsible for borrowing as they sell their loan packages, and tell them why this is a good time to borrow, why their particular package is attractive, why this is the right time to restructure debt? Countries that are not sure that borrowing is worth the risk are told how important it is to establish a credit rating: borrow even if you really don't need the money.

Excessive borrowing increases the chance of a crisis, and the costs of a crisis are borne not just by lenders but by all of society. In recent years, IMF programs may have resulted in significant further distortions in lenders' incentives. When crisis occurred, the IMF lent money in what was called a 'bail-out'- 'but the money was not really a bail-out for the country; it was a bail out for Western banks. In both East Asia and Latin America, bail-outs provided money to repay foreign creditors, thus absolving creditors from having to bear the costs of thejr mistaken lending. In some instances, governments even assumed private liabilities, effectively socializing private risk. The creditors were left off the hook, but the IMF's money wasn't a gift, just another loan- and the developing country was left to pay the bill. In effect, the poor country's taxpayers paid for rich country's lending mistakes.

The bail-outs give rise to the famous^'moral hazard' problem. Moral hazard arises when a party does not bear all the risks associated with his action and as a result does not do everything he can to avoid risk. The term originates in the insurance literature; it was deemed immoral for an individual to take less care in preventing a fire simply because he had insurance coverage. It is, of course, simply a matter of incentives: those with insurance may


not set their houses on fire deliberately, but their incentive to avoid a fire is still weakened. With loans, the risk is default, with all of its consequences; lenders can reduce that risk simply by lending less. If they perceive a high likelihood of a bail-out, they lend more than they otherwise would.

Lending markets are also characterized by, in the famous words of former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan, 'irrational exuberance', as well as irrational pessimism. Lenders rush into a market in a mood of optimism, and rush out when the mood changes. Markets move in fads and fashions, and it is hard to resist joining the latest fad. If only one firm were affected by a mood of irrational optimism, it would have to bear the cost of its mistake; but when large numbers share the same mood, in a fad, there are macro-economic consequences, potentially affecting everyone in the country.

Question:

The author believes that the cost of the crisis is ultimately borne by:

A.   The lending banks

B.   The IMF

C.   The tax payers of the borrowing country

D.         The rich countries


Solution:

(c); Refer Para 4 first and last sentences.


Question 13

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage- 4

The mass media have been recognized as politically significant since the advent of mass literacy and the popular press in the late nineteenth century. However, it is widely accepted that, through a combination of social and technological changes, the media have become increasingly more powerful political actors and, in some respects, more deeply enmeshed in the political process. Three developments are particularly noteworthy. First, the impact of the so-called 'primary' agents of political socialization, such as the family and social class, has declined. Whereas once people acquired, in late childhood and adolescence in particular, a framework of political sympathies and leanings that adult experience tended to modify or deepen, but seldom radically transformed, this has been weakened in modern society by greater social and geographical mobility and by the spread of individualist and consumerist values. Abiding political allegiances and habitual voting patterns have thus given way to a more instrumental approach to politics, in which people make political choices according to a calculation of personal self-interest based on the issues and policy positions on offer. This, in turn, widens the scope for the media's political influence, as they are the principal mechanism through which information about issues and policies, and therefore political choices, is presented to the public.

Second, the development of mass television audience from the 1950s onwards, and more recently the proliferation of channels and media output associated with'the 'new' media, has massively increased the mass media's penetration into people's everyday lives..This means that the public now relies on the mass media more heavily than ever before: for instance, television is a much more important source of news and current affairs information than political meetings; many more people watch televised sport than participate in it; and even shopping is increasingly being carried out through shopping channels and the internet.

Third, the media have become more powerful economic actors. Not only have major media corporations become more powerful global players, but also a series of mergers has tended to incorporate the formerly discrete domains of publishing, television, film, music, computers and telecommunications into a single massive 'infotainment' industry. Media businesses such as Microsoft, AOL-Time Warner, Disney and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation have accumulated so much economic and market power that no government can afford to ignore them.

Few commentators doubt the media's ability to shape political attitudes and values or, at least, to structure political and electoral choice by influencing public perceptions about the nature and importance of issues and problems, thereby. However, there is considerable debate about the political significance of this influence. A series of rival theories offer contrasting views of the media's political impact.

The pluralist model of the mass media portrays the media as an ideological marketplace in which wide range of political views are debated and discussed. While not rejecting the idea


that the media can affect political views and sympathies, this nevertheless suggests that their impact is essentially neutral in that they reflect the balance of forces within the society at large. The pluralist view nevertheless portrays the media in strongly positive terms. In ensuring the 'informed citizenry', the mass media both enhance the quality of democracy and guarantee that government power is checked. This 'watchdog' role was classically demonstrated in the 1974 Washington Post investigation into the Watergate scandal, which led to the resignation of Richard Nixon as US President. Some, moreover, argue that the advent of the 'new' media, and particularly the Internet, has strengthened pluralism and political competition by giving protest groups a relatively cheap and highly effective means of disseminating information and organizing campaigns.

The dominant ideology model portrays media as a politically conservative force that is aligned to the interests of economic and social elites, and serves to promote compliance or passivity amongst the masses. The ownership ultimately determines the political and other views that the mass media disseminate, and ownerships are increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small number of global media corporations.

The elite-values model shifts attention away from the ownership of media corporations to the mechanism through which media output is controlled. This view suggests that editors, journalists and broadcasters enjoy significant professional independence, and that even the most interventionist of media moguls is able only to set a broad political agenda but not the day-to-day editorial decision-making. The media's political bias therefore reflects the values of groups that are disproportionally represented amongst its senior professionals.

The market model of the mass media differs from the other models in that it dispenses with the idea of media bias: it holds that newspaper and television reflect, rather than shape, the views of general public. This occurs because, regardless of the personal views of media owners and senior professionals, private media outlets are first and foremost businesses concerned with profit maximization and thus with extending market share. The media therefore give people 'what they want', and cannot afford to alienate existing or potential viewers and readers by presenting political viewpoints with which they may disagree.

Question:

Which of the following is the most appropriate title for the passage?

A.   Mass media and political communication

B.   Mass media and economic development

C.   Mass media and social development

D.   Mass media and cultural development


Solution:

(a); Exp. The author discusses the impact of mass media on the political socialization. He also states the various theories on the media’s political impact.


Question 14

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage- 4

The mass media have been recognized as politically significant since the advent of mass literacy and the popular press in the late nineteenth century. However, it is widely accepted that, through a combination of social and technological changes, the media have become increasingly more powerful political actors and, in some respects, more deeply enmeshed in the political process. Three developments are particularly noteworthy. First, the impact of the so-called 'primary' agents of political socialization, such as the family and social class, has declined. Whereas once people acquired, in late childhood and adolescence in particular, a framework of political sympathies and leanings that adult experience tended to modify or deepen, but seldom radically transformed, this has been weakened in modern society by greater social and geographical mobility and by the spread of individualist and consumerist values. Abiding political allegiances and habitual voting patterns have thus given way to a more instrumental approach to politics, in which people make political choices according to a calculation of personal self-interest based on the issues and policy positions on offer. This, in turn, widens the scope for the media's political influence, as they are the principal mechanism through which information about issues and policies, and therefore political choices, is presented to the public.

Second, the development of mass television audience from the 1950s onwards, and more recently the proliferation of channels and media output associated with'the 'new' media, has massively increased the mass media's penetration into people's everyday lives..This means that the public now relies on the mass media more heavily than ever before: for instance, television is a much more important source of news and current affairs information than political meetings; many more people watch televised sport than participate in it; and even shopping is increasingly being carried out through shopping channels and the internet.

Third, the media have become more powerful economic actors. Not only have major media corporations become more powerful global players, but also a series of mergers has tended to incorporate the formerly discrete domains of publishing, television, film, music, computers and telecommunications into a single massive 'infotainment' industry. Media businesses such as Microsoft, AOL-Time Warner, Disney and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation have accumulated so much economic and market power that no government can afford to ignore them.

Few commentators doubt the media's ability to shape political attitudes and values or, at least, to structure political and electoral choice by influencing public perceptions about the nature and importance of issues and problems, thereby. However, there is considerable debate about the political significance of this influence. A series of rival theories offer contrasting views of the media's political impact.

The pluralist model of the mass media portrays the media as an ideological marketplace in which wide range of political views are debated and discussed. While not rejecting the idea


that the media can affect political views and sympathies, this nevertheless suggests that their impact is essentially neutral in that they reflect the balance of forces within the society at large. The pluralist view nevertheless portrays the media in strongly positive terms. In ensuring the 'informed citizenry', the mass media both enhance the quality of democracy and guarantee that government power is checked. This 'watchdog' role was classically demonstrated in the 1974 Washington Post investigation into the Watergate scandal, which led to the resignation of Richard Nixon as US President. Some, moreover, argue that the advent of the 'new' media, and particularly the Internet, has strengthened pluralism and political competition by giving protest groups a relatively cheap and highly effective means of disseminating information and organizing campaigns.

The dominant ideology model portrays media as a politically conservative force that is aligned to the interests of economic and social elites, and serves to promote compliance or passivity amongst the masses. The ownership ultimately determines the political and other views that the mass media disseminate, and ownerships are increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small number of global media corporations.

The elite-values model shifts attention away from the ownership of media corporations to the mechanism through which media output is controlled. This view suggests that editors, journalists and broadcasters enjoy significant professional independence, and that even the most interventionist of media moguls is able only to set a broad political agenda but not the day-to-day editorial decision-making. The media's political bias therefore reflects the values of groups that are disproportionally represented amongst its senior professionals.

The market model of the mass media differs from the other models in that it dispenses with the idea of media bias: it holds that newspaper and television reflect, rather than shape, the views of general public. This occurs because, regardless of the personal views of media owners and senior professionals, private media outlets are first and foremost businesses concerned with profit maximization and thus with extending market share. The media therefore give people 'what they want', and cannot afford to alienate existing or potential viewers and readers by presenting political viewpoints with which they may disagree.

Question:

Who, according to the author, are the primary agents of political socialization?

A.   Media moguls

B.   Political parties

C.   The family and social class

D.   Journalists


Solution:

(c); In Para 1, author calls family and Social Class as primary agents of political socialization. One might get confused when author says that its impact has declined and uses the word ‘so-called’ before ‘primary agents’. When we analyse it closely, we will find that the word ‘so-called’ is used to depict that they have lost the importance. The term is still valid. Thus the correct answer is (c).


Question 15

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage- 4

The mass media have been recognized as politically significant since the advent of mass literacy and the popular press in the late nineteenth century. However, it is widely accepted that, through a combination of social and technological changes, the media have become increasingly more powerful political actors and, in some respects, more deeply enmeshed in the political process. Three developments are particularly noteworthy. First, the impact of the so-called 'primary' agents of political socialization, such as the family and social class, has declined. Whereas once people acquired, in late childhood and adolescence in particular, a framework of political sympathies and leanings that adult experience tended to modify or deepen, but seldom radically transformed, this has been weakened in modern society by greater social and geographical mobility and by the spread of individualist and consumerist values. Abiding political allegiances and habitual voting patterns have thus given way to a more instrumental approach to politics, in which people make political choices according to a calculation of personal self-interest based on the issues and policy positions on offer. This, in turn, widens the scope for the media's political influence, as they are the principal mechanism through which information about issues and policies, and therefore political choices, is presented to the public.

Second, the development of mass television audience from the 1950s onwards, and more recently the proliferation of channels and media output associated with'the 'new' media, has massively increased the mass media's penetration into people's everyday lives..This means that the public now relies on the mass media more heavily than ever before: for instance, television is a much more important source of news and current affairs information than political meetings; many more people watch televised sport than participate in it; and even shopping is increasingly being carried out through shopping channels and the internet.

Third, the media have become more powerful economic actors. Not only have major media corporations become more powerful global players, but also a series of mergers has tended to incorporate the formerly discrete domains of publishing, television, film, music, computers and telecommunications into a single massive 'infotainment' industry. Media businesses such as Microsoft, AOL-Time Warner, Disney and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation have accumulated so much economic and market power that no government can afford to ignore them.

Few commentators doubt the media's ability to shape political attitudes and values or, at least, to structure political and electoral choice by influencing public perceptions about the nature and importance of issues and problems, thereby. However, there is considerable debate about the political significance of this influence. A series of rival theories offer contrasting views of the media's political impact.

The pluralist model of the mass media portrays the media as an ideological marketplace in which wide range of political views are debated and discussed. While not rejecting the idea


that the media can affect political views and sympathies, this nevertheless suggests that their impact is essentially neutral in that they reflect the balance of forces within the society at large. The pluralist view nevertheless portrays the media in strongly positive terms. In ensuring the 'informed citizenry', the mass media both enhance the quality of democracy and guarantee that government power is checked. This 'watchdog' role was classically demonstrated in the 1974 Washington Post investigation into the Watergate scandal, which led to the resignation of Richard Nixon as US President. Some, moreover, argue that the advent of the 'new' media, and particularly the Internet, has strengthened pluralism and political competition by giving protest groups a relatively cheap and highly effective means of disseminating information and organizing campaigns.

The dominant ideology model portrays media as a politically conservative force that is aligned to the interests of economic and social elites, and serves to promote compliance or passivity amongst the masses. The ownership ultimately determines the political and other views that the mass media disseminate, and ownerships are increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small number of global media corporations.

The elite-values model shifts attention away from the ownership of media corporations to the mechanism through which media output is controlled. This view suggests that editors, journalists and broadcasters enjoy significant professional independence, and that even the most interventionist of media moguls is able only to set a broad political agenda but not the day-to-day editorial decision-making. The media's political bias therefore reflects the values of groups that are disproportionally represented amongst its senior professionals.

The market model of the mass media differs from the other models in that it dispenses with the idea of media bias: it holds that newspaper and television reflect, rather than shape, the views of general public. This occurs because, regardless of the personal views of media owners and senior professionals, private media outlets are first and foremost businesses concerned with profit maximization and thus with extending market share. The media therefore give people 'what they want', and cannot afford to alienate existing or potential viewers and readers by presenting political viewpoints with which they may disagree.

Question:

According to the author the mass media is a powerful political actor because:

A.   The impact of primary agents of socialization has reduced

B.   The technology has increased the penetration of mass media in everyday life

C.   Infotainment industry has emerged as a big economic force

D.   All of the above reasons


Solution:

(d); Option (D) Option (A) is correct (refer first para). Option (B) is correct (refer to second para). Option (C) is correct (refer third para). Thus (D) all of the above is correct answer.


Question 16

Directions for questions : Read the following passages carefully and answer the questions given at the end of each passage.

 

Passage- 4

The mass media have been recognized as politically significant since the advent of mass literacy and the popular press in the late nineteenth century. However, it is widely accepted that, through a combination of social and technological changes, the media have become increasingly more powerful political actors and, in some respects, more deeply enmeshed in the political process. Three developments are particularly noteworthy. First, the impact of the so-called 'primary' agents of political socialization, such as the family and social class, has declined. Whereas once people acquired, in late childhood and adolescence in particular, a framework of political sympathies and leanings that adult experience tended to modify or deepen, but seldom radically transformed, this has been weakened in modern society by greater social and geographical mobility and by the spread of individualist and consumerist values. Abiding political allegiances and habitual voting patterns have thus given way to a more instrumental approach to politics, in which people make political choices according to a calculation of personal self-interest based on the issues and policy positions on offer. This, in turn, widens the scope for the media's political influence, as they are the principal mechanism through which information about issues and policies, and therefore political choices, is presented to the public.

Second, the development of mass television audience from the 1950s onwards, and more recently the proliferation of channels and media output associated with'the 'new' media, has massively increased the mass media's penetration into people's everyday lives..This means that the public now relies on the mass media more heavily than ever before: for instance, television is a much more important source of news and current affairs information than political meetings; many more people watch televised sport than participate in it; and even shopping is increasingly being carried out through shopping channels and the internet.

Third, the media have become more powerful economic actors. Not only have major media corporations become more powerful global players, but also a series of mergers has tended to incorporate the formerly discrete domains of publishing, television, film, music, computers and telecommunications into a single massive 'infotainment' industry. Media businesses such as Microsoft, AOL-Time Warner, Disney and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation have accumulated so much economic and market power that no government can afford to ignore them.

Few commentators doubt the media's ability to shape political attitudes and values or, at least, to structure political and electoral choice by influencing public perceptions about the nature and importance of issues and problems, thereby. However, there is considerable debate about the political significance of this influence. A series of rival theories offer contrasting views of the media's political impact.

The pluralist model of the mass media portrays the media as an ideological marketplace in which wide range of political views are debated and discussed. While not rejecting the idea


that the media can affect political views and sympathies, this nevertheless suggests that their impact is essentially neutral in that they reflect the balance of forces within the society at large. The pluralist view nevertheless portrays the media in strongly positive terms. In ensuring the 'informed citizenry', the mass media both enhance the quality of democracy and guarantee that government power is checked. This 'watchdog' role was classically demonstrated in the 1974 Washington Post investigation into the Watergate scandal, which led to the resignation of Richard Nixon as US President. Some, moreover, argue that the advent of the 'new' media, and particularly the Internet, has strengthened pluralism and political competition by giving protest groups a relatively cheap and highly effective means of disseminating information and organizing campaigns.

The dominant ideology model portrays media as a politically conservative force that is aligned to the interests of economic and social elites, and serves to promote compliance or passivity amongst the masses. The ownership ultimately determines the political and other views that the mass media disseminate, and ownerships are increasingly concentrated in the hands of a small number of global media corporations.

The elite-values model shifts attention away from the ownership of media corporations to the mechanism through which media output is controlled. This view suggests that editors, journalists and broadcasters enjoy significant professional independence, and that even the most interventionist of media moguls is able only to set a broad political agenda but not the day-to-day editorial decision-making. The media's political bias therefore reflects the values of groups that are disproportionally represented amongst its senior professionals.

The market model of the mass media differs from the other models in that it dispenses with the idea of media bias: it holds that newspaper and television reflect, rather than shape, the views of general public. This occurs because, regardless of the personal views of media owners and senior professionals, private media outlets are first and foremost businesses concerned with profit maximization and thus with extending market share. The media therefore give people 'what they want', and cannot afford to alienate existing or potential viewers and readers by presenting political viewpoints with which they may disagree.

Question:

Which of the following rival theories discussed in the passage portrays the media in a
more positive light in terms of its role in the society?

A.   The Market Model

B.   The Elite Values Model

C.   The Pluralist Model

D.   The Dominant Ideology Model


Solution:

(c); Exp. Directly given in Para 5 line 5 “ The pluralist view nevertheless…..”


Question 17

Direction for question 77 – 78 – the first line (SI) of each question is fixed. Arrange the other four line P, Q, R, and S in a logical sequence.

Question:

SI: The beginning of the universe had, of course, been discussed for a long time.

P: One argument of such beginning was the feeling that it was necessary to have a first cause to explain the existence of the universe.

Q: He point out that civilization is progressing, and we remember who performed this deed or developed that technique;

R: According to a number of early cosmologies in the Jewish/ Christion/Muslim tradition, the universe started at a finite and not very distant time in the past.

S: Another argument was put forward by St. Augustine in his book, The City of God.

  1. QRSP
  2. RPSQ
  3. PSQR
  4. SQPR


Solution:

(B) the first sentence S1 talks of beginning of the universe. It can be followed by either P or R statement. This eliminates options A and D. If sentence P is taken after S1 the word such a beginning cannot be justified. PSQ is a sure link and R will be placed before it. Hence B is the answer.


Question 18

Direction for question 77 – 78 – the first line (SI) of each question is fixed. Arrange the other four line P, Q, R, and S in a logical sequence.

Question:

SI: I was so eager not to disappoint my parents that I ran errands for anyone.

P: On the way a boy on a bicycle crashed into me and my left shoulder hurt so much that my eyes watered.

Q: Only then did I cry

R: But I still went and bought the maize, took it to my neighbours and then went home.

S: One day my neighbours asked me to buy some maize for them from the bazaar

  1. SPQR
  2. PQSR
  3. QRPS
  4. RSQP


Solution:

(A) the given sentence is followed by S ( the beginning of a narration) It is then followed by P on the way. Sentence R then justifies the use of But because the previous sentence has my left shoulder hurt so much .Followed by Q when he reached home only then he cried.


Question 19

Direction for question 79 – 80: Identify the option which gives the correct meaning of the Idiom/Phrase given below:

Question:

To drive home

A. To find one’s roots

B. To return to place of rest

C. To lose all money in betting

D. TO emphasize


Solution:

(D) to drive home means to emphasize an important point about something, to make clearly understand.


Question 20

Direction for question 79 – 80: Identify the option which gives the correct meaning of the Idiom/Phrase given below:

Question:

To have an axe to grind

A. To have a private end to serve

B. To fail to arouse interest

C. To have no result

D. To work for both sides


Solution:

(A) to have a strong opinion about something, or  which you are often trying to persuade others to understand.


Question 21

Directions for question 81-82: In each of the following option, the same word has been used in different sentences in different ways. Choose the option where the word has been used incorrectly.

Question:

A. He got carried away with the unruly mob and indulged in stone pelting.

B. She carried on with life in spite of her personal difficulties.

C. It will be difficult to carry out the plan now.

D. If they get carried on with their overspending, they will soon be bankrupt.


Solution:

(D) it should be If they carry on with there overspending. That means to continue or to maintain. Get carry on is a wrong usage


Question 22

Directions for question 81-82: In each of the following option, the same word has been used in different sentences in different ways. Choose the option where the word has been used incorrectly.

Question:

A. Hang over for a minute, and I will attend to you.

B. He decided to hang up his boots after his poor form in the last season.

C. Please do not hang around outside our gate.

D. She was hanging on to each word I spoke.


Solution:

(A) here hang over is incorrect as it means something menacing or threatening. It should be  hang around instead.


Question 23

Directions for questions 83 – 84:- Each of the following question has a sentence with two blanks. Given below in the options are four pairs of words. Choose the pair that best completes the sentence.

Question:

Not for the last time, the British had grossly___________ the toughness odf lo0cal fighters, and the very _____________ kind of terrain from Europe.

A. misrepresented; mild

B. underestimated; different

C. miscalculated; similar

D. understood; hostile


Solution:

(B)


Question 24

Directions for questions 83 – 84:- Each of the following question has a sentence with two blanks. Given below in the options are four pairs of words. Choose the pair that best completes the sentence.

Question:

The complicated processes, which often ______ reason, forced us to become very creative in finding ways to work ______ the challenges.

A. explained; out

B. reflected; over

C. defied; around

D. beyond; about


Solution:

(C)


Question 25

Directions for questions 85 – 86: Given below are some French words commonly used in English Language. What is the meaning of these French words.

Question:

Milieu

A. Millennium

B. Century

C. Social Environment

D. Feudal


Solution:

(C) It means An environment or a setting.


Question 26

Directions for questions 85 – 86: Given below are some French words commonly used in English Language. What is the meaning of these French words.

Question:

Gaffe

A. Blunder

B. Loud laughter

C. Iron hook

D.   House


Solution:

(A) a blunder , faux pas  A blatant mistake or misjudgment.


Question 27

Directions for questions 87 – 88: In the following sentences, fill in the blank space with the correct word from the options provided.

Question:

During the winter, many deer become ________and died because of a food shortage.

A. emancipated

B. enunciated

C. elevated

D. Emaciated


Solution:

(D)   emaciated means to make or become extremely thin, especially as a result of starvation. Emancipate means To free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate. Enunciated means To state or set forth precisely and elevated means raised


Question 28

Directions for questions 87 – 88: In the following sentences, fill in the blank space with the correct word from the options provided.

Question:

Thought fictional, the story of shylock is not entirely removed ______ Venetian reality.

A. of

B. with

C. from]

D. through


Solution:

(C) not entirely removed from is correct.


Question 29
Question:

Choose the option closest in meaning to the word’Qualm’

A. Concavity

B. Misgiving

C. Amplitude

D. Repute


Solution:

(B) qualm is An uneasy feeling , a disturbing feeling about the propriety or rightness of a course of action


Question 30

Directions for questions 90 – 91: Choose the correct option to fill in the blank space in the given sentences.

Question:

Pipes are not a safer ____ to cigarettes because, though pipe smokers do not inhale, they still _________ higher rates of lung and mouth cancers than non-smokers.

A. option….likely to

B. answer ……… responsible for

C. alternative…..subject to

D. preference …… involved with


Solution:

(C)  alternative to cigarettes is correct. Subject to a higher rate is fitting the second blank


Question 31

Directions for questions 90 – 91: Choose the correct option to fill in the blank space in the given sentences.

Question:

The conspirators met ____ in order to plot a(n) ____against the oppressive governance of Julius Caesar.

A. aggressively …. Referendum

B. clandestinely…revolt

C. wittily…..upheaval

D. wickedly….invocation


Solution:

(B)  met clandestinely to plot that means in a secretive manner  For the second blank  revolt against is correct


Question 32

Directions for questions 92 – 93: Indentify the oxymoron

Question:

A. Behave properly

B. Act naturally

C. Speak honestly

D. Drive slowly


Solution:

(B) an oxymoron is a figure of speech  in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined, that means a Noun with an opposite Adjective given to it. Hence B Act naturally is the answer


Question 33

Directions for questions 92 – 93: Indentify the oxymoron

Question:

A. Original Copy

B. Small Crowd

C. Open Secret

D. All of the Above


Solution:

(D) an oxymoron is a figure of speech  in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined, Hence all are oxymoron’s.


Question 34
Question:

A part of the following sentence is left unfinished. From the alternatives given to complete the sentence, choose the best alternative.

Although these injuries are not fatal,______________________________

  1. They are not ranked among the top causes of death.
  2. They are certainly incapacitating and tragic.
  3. There is no proof of the same.

They do not get reported.


Solution:

(B) Because of the word although an almost similar  connotation is required in the second part of the sentence. not fatal   yet  incapacitating and tragic will be correct.


Question 35
Question:

The words in the following pair have a certain relationship-p with each other, given in the options are four pairs of related words. Select the pair with the same relationship as the given pair.

Cacophony: Euphony::

  1. Belligerent: Serene
  2. Loneliness: Peace
  3. Horrific: Sympathetic
  4. Nocturnal: Diurnal


Solution:

(A) cacophony (discordant, dissonance) and euphony ( a pleasing sound) are antonyms. hence belligerent that is aggressive and hostile is the opposite to serene that is calm and peaceful.


Question 36
Question:

Choose the option which is the antonym of the word ’Blasphemous’

A. Ascetic

B. Reverent

C. Inferior

D. Blarney


Solution:

(B) blasphemous means  Irreverent or impious action or expression in regard to something considered  sacrosanct. Hence reverent that is respectful is the answer.


GA
Question 1
Question:

Which multilateral development bank has been set up by BRICS as an alternative to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund?

A. The New Development Bank

B. The Asian Development Bank

C. The Bank for Emerging Nations

D. The Economic Cooperation Bank


Solution:

Ans – A

The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank operated by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) as an alternative to the existing American and European-dominated World Bank and International Monetary Fund.


Question 2
Question:

Given below are some popular stock indices of the world. Match the stock index with the country and stock market it represents.

Stock Index

Stock Market

  1. DAX
  1. Japan
  1. Nikkei
  1. Brazil
  1. KOSPI
  1. Germany
  1. Bovespa
  1. South Korea

 

  1. I-d; II-b; III-a; IV-c
  2. I-b; II-d; III-c; IV-a
  3. I-a; II-c; III-b; IV-d
  4. I-c; II-a; III-d; IV-b


Solution:

Ans – D

The DAX (Deutscher Aktienindex (German stock index)) is a blue chip stock market index consisting of the 30 major German companies trading on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.

The Nikkei 225 more commonly called the Nikkei, the Nikkei index, or the Nikkei Stock Average) is a stock market index for the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE).

The Korea Composite Stock Price Index or KOSPI is the index of all common stocks traded on the Stock Market Division—previously, Korea Stock Exchange—of the Korea Exchange.

The BM&F BOVESPA is a stock exchange located at São Paulo, Brazil.


Question 3
Question:

The remains of which ancient civilization can be seen at the site of Machu Pichu in Peru?

A. Incas

B. Aztecs

C. Mayans

D. Indians


Solution:

Ans – A

Machu Picchu is a 15th-century Inca site located 2,430 metres (7,970 ft) above sea level. The Incas built the estate around 1450.


Question 4
Question:

Who is acknowledged as the creator of Chandigarh’  s Rock Gardens?

A. E. Sridharan

B. Nek Chand Saini

C. Charles Correa

D. Geoffrey Bawa


Solution:

Ans – B

The Rock Garden of Chandigarh is a sculpture garden in Chandigarh, India, also known as Nek Chand's Rock Garden after its founder Nek Chand, a government official who started the garden secretly in his spare time in 1957.


Question 5
Question:

Which is the first Eurozone nation to exit its bailout package?

A. Portugal

B. Italy

C. Ireland

D. Spain


Solution:

Ans – C

Ireland becomes first country to exit eurozone bailout programme. Three years after being saved from bankruptcy by a trio of international lenders with a €67.5bn loan, Ireland has become the first stricken eurozone state to exit its rescue programme.


Question 6
Question:

Match the name of the city with the river on whose banks it is located

City

River

  1. Budapest
  1. Tigris
  1. Baghdad
  1. Tiber`
  1. Rome
  1. Han
  1. Seoul
  1. Danube

 

  1. I-d; II-a; III-b; IV-c
  2. I-b; II-c; III-d; IV-a
  3. I-c; II-d; III-a; IV-b
  4. I-a; II-b; III-c; IV-d

 


Solution:

Ans- A

Budapest is the capital and the largest city of Hungary. Budapest became a single city occupying both banks of the river Danube with the unification of Buda and Óbuda on the west bank, with Pest on the east bank on 17 November 1873.

Baghdad is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century.

Rome is a city and special comune in Italy which is along the shores of Tiber river.

Seoul is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea which is situated on the Han River.


Question 7
Question:

What is the motto of the 2016 Summer Olympics to be held in Rio de Janeiro?

A. Live Your Passion

B. One World, One Dream

C. Friends Forever

D. Harmony and Progress


Solution:

Ans- A

The 2016 Summer Olympics are the 31st Summer Olympic Games, the world's largest international multi-sport event that is held every four years.


Question 8
Question:

Which Film won the 2015 Oscar Award for the “Best Animated Feature Film”?

A. Song of the Sea

B. How to train your Dragon 2

C. Big Hero 6

D. The Boxtrolls


Solution:

Ans – C

Big Hero 6 is a 2014 American 3D computer-animated superhero comedy film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures—the first superhero film in Disney's animated features canon and the 54th overall.


Question 9
Question:

who among the following has won the maximum all time Grand Slam Women’s singal title?

A. Serena Williams

B. margaret Court

C. Steffi Graf

D. Martina Navratilova


Solution:

Ans – B

In 1970 Court became the first woman during the open era (and the second woman in history) to win the singles Grand Slam (all four major tournaments in the same calendar year). Court won a record 24 of those titles, a record that still stands. She also won 19 women's doubles and 21 mixed doubles titles, giving her a record 64 major titles overall.


Question 10
Question:

match the name of the multinational Firm with the following Indians are/have been associated as CEO

Indian CEO

Multinatinal Firm

  1. Anshu Jain
  1. masterCard
  1. Shantanu Narayen
  1. Reckitt and Colman
  1. Ajaypal Singh Banga
  1. Deutsche Bank
  1. Rakesh Kapoor
  1. Adobe

 

  1. I-c; II-d; III-a; IV-b
  2. I-b; II-a; III-c; IV-d
  3. I-d; II-c; III-b; IV-a
  4. I-a; II-b; III-d; IV-c


Solution:

Ans- A

Anshuman Jain is an Indian business executive. He took over as Co-CEO of Deutsche Bank on 1 June 2012 to succeed Management Board Chairman Josef Ackermann.

Shantanu Narayen is an Indian American business executive and the CEO of Adobe Systems.

Ajaypal "Ajay" Singh Banga is the current president and chief executive officer of MasterCard.

Rakesh Kapoor  is an Indian businessman, Chief Executive of Reckitt Benckiser plc, a UK FTSE-listed multinational consumer goods company, a major producer of health, hygiene and home products. It was formed in 1999 by the merger of the UK-based Reckitt & Colman plc and the Netherlands-based Benckiser NV.


Question 11
Question:

A person with ‘AB’ blood group is also called a universal recipient because of the

A. Lack of antigens in the blood

B. Lack of antibodies in the blood

C. Lack of both antigens and antibodies in the blood

D. Presence of both antigens and antibodies in the blood


Solution:

Ans – B

A person who has group AB blood and is therefore able to receive blood from a person with any other blood type. Group AB blood contains red blood cells that have both antigens A and B and thus does not have reactive antibodies in its plasma to these antigens, which are found in some other blood types.

Referred Link : https://www.google.co.in/search?q=goo&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=UGpRVoqcMcy10gTegKWQBw#q=why+blood+group+ab+is+called+universal+recipient


Question 12
Question:

Who is the Vice Chairman of the NITI Aayog?

A.  Arvind Panagariya

B. Arun Maira

C. Raghuram Rajan

D. Arvind Subramaniam


Solution:

Ans – A

The National Institution for Transforming India Aayog is a Government of India policy think-tank established by Prime Minister Narendra Modi to replace the Planning Commission.


Question 13
Question:

The first Export Processing Zone of Asia was set up in

A. Singapore

B. Kandla

C. Shanghai

D. Dubai


Solution:

Ans- B

India was one of the first countries in Asia to recognize the effectiveness of the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) model in promoting exports, with Asia's first EPZ set up in Kandla in 1965.


Question 14
Question:

Who lanched a ‘crowd funding’ campaign to raise funds for bailing out Greece?

A. Thomas Feeney

B. Thomas Friedman

C. Thomson Reuters

D. Thomas Edison


Solution:

Ans – A

Campaign to crowdfund Greek bailout ended with €2m… or 0% of total needed.

Referred Link : http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/greece-debt-crisis-live-campaign-to-crowdfund-greek-bailout-ends-with-2m-or-0-of-total-needed-10371792.html


Question 15
Question:

match the name of the book with its author.

Book

Author

  1. To kill a Mockingbird
  1. E.M. Forster
  1. A Passage t9o India
  1. Joseph E. Stiglitz
  1. Globalization and its Discountents
  1. Thomas L. Friedman
  1. The World is Flat
  1. Harper Lee

 

  1. I-a; II-b; III-d; IV-c
  2. I-d; II-a; III-b; IV-c
  3. I-d; II-c; III-a; IV-b
  4. I-a; II-d; III-c; IV-b


Solution:

Ans – B

To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel by Harper Lee published in 1960.

A Passage to India (1924) is a novel by English author E. M. Forster set against the backdrop of the British Raj and the Indian independence movement in the 1920s.

Globalization and Its Discontents is a book published in 2002 by the 2001 Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz.

The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century is an international bestselling book by Thomas L. Friedman.


Question 16
Question:

The U.S. recently announced that its redesigned ten-dollar bill, to be issued in 2020, will include the

A. Face of a Lion

B. Face of an Elephant

C. Face of a Woman       

D. Face of a Dragon


Solution:

Ans – C

U.S. Treasury Secretary Jack Lew said a woman will be featured on a redesigned $10 bill in 2020 — the 100th anniversary of the Constitution's 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote.

Referred Link : http://money.cnn.com/2015/06/17/news/economy/woman-on-ten-dollar-bill/


Question 17
Question:

The new Centre-state tax sharing model promised a 10% increased in the State’s share. This 10% increase will result from increasing the share from

A. 32% to 42%

B. 22% to 32%

C. 42% to 52%

D. None of the above


Solution:

Ans – A

The new Centre-state tax-sharing model, part of PM Modi's grand cooperative federalism vision, promised a 10% increase — from 32% to 42% — in the states' share but at the same time drastically slashed budgetary support to states for key welfare schemes.

Referred Link : http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/UP-gets-poorer-by-Rs-9000-crore/articleshow/47942483.cms


Question 18
Question:

Which of the following countries is not a member of European Union?

A. Sweden

B. Finland

C. Norway

D. Denmark


Solution:

Ans – C

The European Union (EU) comprises 28 member states. Norway is not a member State.


Question 19
Question:

As peer monetary policy agreement between RBI and the Finance Ministry, the RBI is required to maintain inflation in the range of:

A. 2% to 6%

B. 4% to 10%

C. 3% to 9%

D. 5% to 8%


Solution:

Ans – A

The goal set for the RBI is to maintain inflation in the range of 2-6 percent, as measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI) from 2015-16 onwards.

Referred Link : http://www.firstpost.com/business/rbi-govt-deal-monetary-policy-cuts-ways-fm-also-deliver-2133145.html


Question 20
Question:

Who discovered ‘Pluto’ in the year 1930?

A. Clyde Tombaugh

B. Albert Einstein

C. Carl Sagan

D. jacques Cousteau


Solution:

Ans – A

Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930, and was originally considered the ninth planet from the Sun.


Question 21
Question:

According to the World Investment Report 2015 published by UNCTAD, which of the following countries was the largest recipient of FDI inflows in 2014?

A. China

B. India

C. USA

D. Singapore


Solution:

Ans- A

China became the largest recipient of FDI in 2014 with $129 billion inflows, followed by Hong Kong (China) that received $103 billion and the U.S. with $92 billion.

Referred Link : http://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/india-among-top-10-fdi-recipients/article7350866.ece


Question 22
Question:

Euro dollars are

A. A currency issued by European Union

B. Special currency issued by the Fedral Government of USA for Europe

C. US Dollars held in Europe

D. European Currencies exchanged for the US dollar in Us


Solution:

Ans- C

Eurodollars are time deposits denominated in U.S. dollars at banks outside the United States, and thus are not under the jurisdiction of the Federal Reserve. Consequently, such deposits are subject to much less regulation than similar deposits within the U.S. The term was originally coined for U.S. dollars in European banks, but it expanded over the years to its present definition—a U.S. dollar-denominated deposit in Tokyo or Beijing would be likewise deemed a Eurodollar deposit. There is no connection with the euro currency or the eurozone.


Question 23
Question:

Match the Prime Minister and Presidents  of India who have been contemporaries in Office.

Prime Minister

President

  1. Indira Gandhi
  1. Shankar Dayal
  1. Rajiv Gandhi
  1. V. V. Giri
  1. I.K. Gujral
  1. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam
  1. Manmohan Singh
  1. Gaini Zail Singh

 

  1. I-a; II-b; III-c; IV-d
  2. I-b; II-a; III-d; IV-c
  3. I-a; II-c; III-b; IV-d
  4. I-b; II-d; III-a; IV-c


Solution:

Ans – D


Question 24
Question:

Mark the wrong combination

A. James Watt: Steam Engine

B. A.G. Bell: Telephone

C. J.L. Baird: Television

D. J. Perkins: Penicillin


Solution:

Ans – D

Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming.


Question 25
Question:

Mother Teresa was born in

A. Switzerland

B. India

C. Germany

D. Macedonia


Solution:

Ans – D

Mother Teresa also known as Teresa of Calcutta was a Roman Catholic religious sister and missionary. She was born in Skopje, Macedonia.


Question 26
Question:

In 1985-86 an official policy introduced by Gorbachev in Soviet Union that stressed  on honest discussion about the country’s social issues and concerns was called

A. Glasnost

B. Gosplans

C. Irredentism

D. Oligarchs


Solution:

Ans – A

Glasnost Soviet policy of open discussion of political and social issues. It was instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s and began the democratization of the Soviet Union.

The State Planning Committee, commonly known as Gosplan was the agency responsible for central economic planning in the Soviet Union.


Question 27
Question:

The Bristish Cosmologist Stephen Hawking and the Russian enterpreneur Yuri Milner have launched a project to search for the extra terrestrial life. This project is called.

A. The Break through Listen Project

B. The Cosmic Breakthrough Project

C. The exrtra Terrestrial Project

D. The Edge of the Universe Project


Solution:

. Ans- A

Breakthrough Listen is a ten-year $100 million initiative by Russian tycoon Yuri Milner to search for intelligent extraterrestrial life in the Universe. It is part of Milner's Breakthrough Initiatives, and was announced alongside Breakthrough Message. It has been described as the most comprehensive search for alien communications to date.


Question 28
Question:

Match the name of the organization with the name of the city in which it is headquartered

Organization

Headquarters

  1. International Monetary Fund
  1. Lausanne
  1. Internation Olympic Committee
  1. Geneva
  1. International Labour organisation
  1. Washington
  1. International Chamber of Commerce
  1. Paris

 

  1. I-d; II-c; III-a; IV-b
  2. I-a; II-b; III-d; IV-c
  3. I-c; II-a; III-b; IV-d
  4. I-b; II-d; III-c; IV-a


Solution:

Ans- C


Answer key

QA

DI&LR

VA

GA

1

B

23

C

61

A

97

A

2

C

24

C

62

A

98

D

3

A

25

B

63

B

99

A

4

C

26

A

64

C

100

B

5

C

27

D

65

B

101

C

6

A

28

B

66

C

102

A

7

B

29

B

67

B

103

A

8

D

30

D

68

D

104

C

9

A

31

B

69

C

105

B

10

D

32

B

70

A

106

A

11

B

33

B

71

C

107

B

12

C

34

C

72

C

108

A

13

B

35

B

73

A

109

B

14

D

36

B

74

A

110

A

15

C

37

C

75

B

111

B

16

D

38

C

76

C

112

C

17

B

39

D

77

B

113

A

18

A

40

C

78

A

114

C

19

B

41

B

79

D

115

A

20

D

42

C

80

A

116

A

21

B

43

B

81

D

117

A

22

A

44

A

82

A

118

C

 

 

45

C

83

B

119

D

 

 

46

D

84

C

120

D

 

 

47

D

85

C

121

D

 

 

48

C

86

A

122

A

 

 

49

B

87

D

123

A

 

 

50

B

88

C

124

C

 

 

51

D

89

B

 

 

 

 

52

B

90

C

 

 

 

 

53

D

91

B

 

 

 

 

54

C

92

B

 

 

 

 

55

B

93

D

 

 

 

 

56

B

94

B

 

 

 

 

57

C

95

A

 

 

 

 

58

D

96

B

 

 

 

 

59

C

 

 

 

 

 

 

60

A